Employment and health status changes among women with fibromyalgia: a five-year study.
ABSTRACT To assess changes in health status of women with fibromyalgia (FM) over 5 years and determine whether baseline employment status influences health outcomes adjusting for other baseline factors.
Two hundred eighty-seven women with FM were recruited from a national sample of rheumatologists and interviewed by phone at baseline and annually for 4 years. Data were collected on pain, fatigue, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (M-HAQ) scores, demographic characteristics, and employment status. At the end of the study, 211 participants remained. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling techniques. Bootstrap methods adjusted for the cluster sampling.
The participants' mean +/- SD age was 47 +/- 11 years, their mean +/- SD education level was 14 +/- 2 years, 90% were white, 50% employed, 64% married, and their median household income was >or=$50,000. Mean +/- SD scores at baseline were 57.2 +/- 24 for pain, 75.4 +/- 22 for fatigue, 22.9 +/- 13 for depression, and 0.73 +/- 0.5 for the M-HAQ. Multilevel modeling indicated that all health status measures declined significantly over time except for pain. Rates of change varied from -1.22 for fatigue to -0.03 for the M-HAQ. Except for pain, patients who were employed at baseline had better health status over time. The employment and time interaction was not significant, indicating that health status changed at the same rate regardless of employment status. Other significant factors were age and income.
Employed women with FM have better health status at baseline and maintain that advantage over time. Employment does not seem to provide a protective health benefit.
Article: Young women with fibromyalgia in the United States and Sweden: perceived difficulties during the first year after diagnosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The major symptoms of fibromyalgia (FM)--pain, tiredness, disrupted sleep, and muscle weakness--severely impact everyday activities, including the paid work role of women who have had FM for a long time. There are no prospective studies on young and newly diagnosed women with FM. The aim of the present study was to describe and compare difficulties young and newly diagnosed women in Sweden and the United States experienced during their first year after diagnosis. Three interviews, 6 months apart, were conducted, with 49 Swedish and 45 US women between the ages of 18 and 39. Five open-ended questions were asked concerning physical, psychological and social difficulties and limitations, and factors that increased or decreased their difficulties and limitations. At interviews 2 and 3 the women were also asked about ways of preventing their difficulties. The answers were written down and analysed by a content analysis approach. Consistent categories of difficulties were reported: symptoms, movements, activities, moods, social network, external factors and coping strategies. More US women were working outside their homes than were their Swedish counterparts and they expressed more difficulties compared with the Swedish women. In general, difficulties decreased and coping strategies increased over the 1-year period in both groups of newly diagnosed, young women.Disability and Rehabilitation 11/2006; 28(19):1177-84. · 1.50 Impact Factor
Article: A segmented K-space velocity mapping protocol for quantification of renal artery blood flow during breath-holding.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Two important prerequisites for MR velocity mapping of pulsatile motion are synchronization of the sequence execution to the time course of the flow pattern and robustness toward loss of signal in complex flow fields. Synchronization is normally accomplished by using either prospective ECG triggering or so-called retrospective gating. However, if the studied vessel moves periodically in space as a result of respiratory motion, as in the case of renal arteries, a second synchronization with respect to the vessel motion in space may be necessary. One method to overcome this problem is to use the segmented k-space technique, in which the entire data acquisition can be made within a breath-hold by the sampling of several phase-encoding lines within a small time window during each heart cycle. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a segmented k-space velocity mapping protocol for renal artery flow determination. The protocol uses 16 phase-encoding lines per heart beat during 16 heart cycles and gives a temporal velocity resolution of 160 msec. Comparison with a conventional ECG-triggered velocity mapping protocol was made in phantoms as well as in volunteers. In our study, both methods showed sufficient robustness toward complex flow in a phantom model. In comparison with the ECG technique, the segmentation technique reduced vessel blurring and pulsatility artifacts caused by respiratory motion, and average flow values obtained in vivo in the left renal artery agreed between the two methods studied.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 5(4):393-401. · 2.70 Impact Factor