The influence of maternal smoking on maternal and newborn oxidant and antioxidant status.
ABSTRACT Maternal smoking has been suggested as a source of oxidant stress in pregnant women and in newborns exposed in utero. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of maternal smoking on oxidant status and antioxidant vitamins of mother-infant pairs.
Socioeconomic and diet characteristics were recorded from 20 smoker and 20 non-smoker pregnant women of 36 weeks' gestation. On the day of delivery, venous blood samples of the women and cord bloods were taken. On postpartum day 7, milk and infant urine samples were collected. Plasma and milk beta-carotene, retinol, alpha-tocopherol and cotinine levels, plasma malondialdehyde levels, and urine cotinine levels were measured.
Milk alpha-tocopherol levels of smoking mothers were lower than those of non-smoking mothers. In smokers, there were no correlations between maternal vitamin A intakes and milk levels of retinol, and between maternal plasma levels and milk levels of beta-carotene.
Maternal smoking may lead to decreased milk levels of vitamin E, as a result of making use of this antioxidant in order to limit lipid peroxidation, as well as may lead to a possible limitation on the transfer of lipophilic antioxidants including vitamin A from blood plasma to milk. Further investigations conducted in large populations will be needed to assess the effects of maternal smoking on the oxidant and antioxidant status of breast milk.
- SourceAvailable from: Ana M López-Sobaler[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Concentrations of antioxidants in breast milk probably define the degree of protection it can offer against peroxidation. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the differences in vitamin E status of Spanish women smokers and nonsmokers in their third trimester of pregnancy and the concentrations of tocopherol in their milk. Vitamin E intake was determined during the third trimester of pregnancy by using a 5-d dietary record (including a Sunday) and by recording the quantities provided by supplements. HPLC was used to determine vitamin E concentrations in subjects' serum during the third trimester, in transitional breast milk on days 13-14 of lactation, and in mature breast milk on day 40 of lactation. Subjects also answered a questionnaire about their smoking habits during pregnancy. Subjects were grouped as nonsmokers (71.9%; n = 41) or smokers (28.1%; n = 16). Although vitamin E intake was somewhat greater in nonsmokers, the difference was not significant. Ratios of vitamin E to polyunsaturated fatty acids were practically the same in both groups. The use of vitamin E supplements was limited and did not modify the results of the study. No significant differences in these serum indexes were found between smokers and nonsmokers, and no subject had deficient serum vitamin E concentrations. However, vitamin E concentrations in mature milk were significantly lower in smokers than in nonsmokers. Although it is already known that maternal smoking favors peroxidation events in newborns, if the concentration of antioxidants (vitamin E) in smokers' breast milk is also lower, it might aggravate the peroxidation problems of their newborns.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10/1998; 68(3):662-7. · 6.50 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of maternal smoke exposure on neonatal and maternal antioxidant status, 39 mothers who were active smokers, 14 mothers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), 17 controls, and their newborns were included in a prospective, controlled study. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, measured as total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and concentrations of specific antioxidants were measured in cord and in maternal blood. A similar, significant increase in ceruloplasmin concentration was observed in neonates born to actively smoking mothers and in those born to ETS exposed mothers. Uric acid and TRAP concentrations were significantly increased in ETS-exposed newborns and their mothers, compared to newborns and mothers from the active smoking and no-exposure groups with a trend towards increased uric acid, TRAP and FRAP concentrations being observed in the active smokers group. Neonatal and maternal antioxidant concentrations correlated significantly, except for ceruloplasmin. Cord blood vitamin A, E and C concentrations were unaffected by smoke exposure. These results show that maternal active smoking as well as ETS exposure significantly affect neonatal and maternal antioxidant status.Biology of the Neonate 01/2005; 87(2):121-6. · 1.90 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate simultaneously serum and milk malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and antioxidant potential (AOP) in active-smoking, passive-smoking, and nonsmoking mothers and to search if there is any difference between serum and milk oxidant/ antioxidant status caused by smoking. According to their smoking status, 60 mothers (age range: 20-35 yr) were classified into one of three groups: the active-smoking mothers (n=15), the passive-smoking mothers (n=22), and the nonsmoking mothers (n=23). Serum and milk MDA, SOD, GPx, and AOP values were determined in mothers on the postpartum seventh day by the spectrophotometric method. Serum Zn and Cu concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). There was no significant difference in serum samples with respect to MDA (p=0.17), SOD (p=0.51), and AOP (p=0.36) levels, but there was a significant difference in serum GPx (p=0.002) levels among the study groups. The significant differences were also found in milk samples in terms of MDA (p=0.002) and SOD (p=0.011), but not in GPx (p=0.11) and AOP (p=0.29) levels among the study groups. No significant difference was seen in serum zinc concentration (p=0.49), but copper concentration differed significantly among the groups (p=0.005). These observations suggest that human milk is more vulnerable to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation than serum samples in smoking mothers, even if they are passive smokers.Biological Trace Element Research 02/2005; 105(1-3):27-36. · 1.31 Impact Factor