Control of allograft rejection in mice by applying a novel neuropeptide, cortistatin.
ABSTRACT The action of cortistatin (CST), a novel cyclic neuropeptide, as an anti-inflammatory factor has been studied, but few investigations have explored the immunomodulatory role of CST in transplantation. In the present study, we examined whether CST affects the alloimmune response in a mouse model of skin transplantation and the effects of CST on T lymphocytes.
BALB/c (H-2K(d)) recipient mice (n=70) were divided into seven groups (n=10 per group) and given an intraperitoneal injection of CST or a somatostatin analog, SMS 201-995 (octreotide), on the day of skin transplantation from C57BL/6 (B6) (H-2K(b)) donors. Injections were continued for 7 consecutive days. Groups 1-3 received CST at doses of 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg, respectively. Groups 4-6 received SMS 201-995 at the same doses. Group 7 was a control group and received injections of phosphate buffered saline. Survival of the allografts was recorded. A semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction study of Foxp3 expression and a flow cytometry study of CD4 and CD25 markers of T lymphocytes were conducted to determine whether CD4(+)CD25(+) Foxp3(high) regulatory T cells (T(reg)) were generated in vivo.
BALB/c mice given CST (0.2 or 2 mg/kg) had prolonged graft survival (median survival time [MST], 13 and 14 days, respectively; P<0.05 compared with controls). SMS 201-995 at the same concentrations did not have a significant effect on allograft survival (MST, 8 days for both groups). We found more than a twofold increase of CD4(+)CD25(+) T(reg) cells in the CD4(+) T-cell population and the expression of Foxp3 was up-regulated in the CST treatment groups, compared with control and SMS 201-995 treatment groups.
In our study, CST induced a significant prolongation in survival time of allogeneic skin grafts and increased the generation of CD4(+)CD25(+) Foxp 3(high) T(reg) cells. These results suggest that CST may become a new modality in controlling allograft rejection.
- SourceAvailable from: pnas.org[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cortistatin is a recently discovered cyclic neuropeptide related to somatostatin that has emerged as a potential endogenous antiinflammatory factor based on its production by, and binding to, immune cells. Crohn's disease is a chronic debilitating disease characterized by severe T helper 1 (Th1)-driven inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of cortistatin in a murine model of colitis. Cortistatin treatment significantly ameliorated the clinical and histopathologic severity of the inflammatory colitis, abrogating body weight loss, diarrhea, and inflammation and increased the survival rate of the colitic mice. The therapeutic effect was associated with down-regulation of inflammatory and Th1-driven autoimmune response, including the regulation of a wide spectrum of inflammatory mediators. In addition, a partial involvement of regulatory IL-10-secreting T cells in this therapeutic effect was demonstrated. Importantly, cortistatin treatment was therapeutically effective in established colitis and avoided the recurrence of the disease. This work identifies cortistatin as an antiinflammatory factor with the capacity to deactivate the intestinal inflammatory response and restore mucosal immune tolerance at multiple levels. Consequently, cortistatin represents a multistep therapeutic approach for the treatment of Crohn's disease and other Th1-mediated inflammatory diseases.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2006; 103(11):4228-33. · 9.74 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The involvement of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) in general immune homeostasis and protection from autoimmune syndromes is now well established. Similarly, there has been increasing evidence for Treg involvement in allograft rejection and current immunotherapies. However, despite significant advances in understanding the development, function, and therapeutic efficacy of Treg in certain well-defined rodent models, the relevance of Treg to clinical transplantation remains unclear. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the role of Treg in immunity and organ transplantation in experimental and clinical settings. In addition, we review advances in using Treg as a form of immune therapy. The goal is to highlight the complexities and opportunities in the field and to provide evidence to support the use of antigen-specific Tregs in the context of transplantation to facilitate a robust and selective state of immune tolerance.American Journal of Transplantation 07/2007; 7(6):1457-63. · 6.19 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The induction of immune tolerance is essential for the maintenance of immune homeostasis and to limit the occurrence of exacerbated inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Multiple mechanisms act together to ensure self-tolerance, including central clonal deletion, cytokine deviation and induction of regulatory T cells. Identifying the factors that regulate these processes is crucial for the development of new therapies of autoimmune diseases and transplantation. The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a well-characterized endogenous anti-inflammatory neuropeptide with therapeutic potential for a variety of immune disorders. Here, we examine the latest research findings, which indicate that VIP participates in maintaining immune tolerance in two distinct ways: by regulating the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, and by inducing the emergence of regulatory T cells with suppressive activity against autoreactive T-cell effectors.Peptides 10/2007; 28(9):1833-46. · 2.52 Impact Factor