The expression of type III hyperlipoproteinemia: involvement of lipolysis genes.
ABSTRACT Type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) is mainly found in homozygous apolipoprotein (APO) E2 (R158C) carriers. Genetic factors contributing to the expression of type III HLP were investigated in 113 hyper- and 52 normolipidemic E2/2 subjects, by testing for polymorphisms in APOC3, APOA5, HL (hepatic lipase) and LPL (lipoprotein lipase) genes. In addition, 188 normolipidemic Dutch control panels (NDCP) and 141 hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients were genotyped as well. No associations were found for four HL gene polymorphisms and two LPL gene polymorphisms and type III HLP. The frequency of the rare allele of APOC3 3238 G>C and APOA5 -1131 T>C (in linkage disequilibrium) was significantly higher in type III HLP patients when compared with normolipidemic E2/2 subjects, 15.6 vs 6.9% and 15.1 vs 5.8%, respectively, (P<0.05). Furthermore, the frequencies of the APOA5 c.56 G>C polymorphism and LPL c.27 G>A mutation were higher in type III HLP patients, though not significant. Some 58% of the type III HLP patients carried either the APOA5 -1131 T>C, c.56 G>C and/or LPL c.27 G>A mutation as compared to 27% of the normolipidemic APOE2/2 subjects (odds ratio 3.7, 95% confidence interval=1.8-7.5, P<0.0001). The HTG patients showed similar allele frequencies of the APOA5, APOC3 and LPL polymorphisms, whereas the NDCP showed similar allele frequencies as the normolipidemic APOE2/2. Patients with the APOC3 3238 G>C/APOA5 -1131 T>C polymorphism showed a more severe hyperlipidemia than patients without this polymorphism. Polymorphisms in lipolysis genes associate with the expression and severity of type III HLP in APOE2/2.
Article: Transcriptional regulation of the apoC-III gene by insulin in diabetic mice: correlation with changes in plasma triglyceride levels.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is associated with elevated plasma triglyceride levels that normalize after insulin administration. The observation that overexpression of the apoC-III gene in transgenic mice can cause hypertriglyceridemia and other evidence implicating apoC-III in the regulation of triglyceride levels prompted us to examine whether apoC-III might be involved in the hypertriglyceridemia associated with IDDM. To this end, the regulation of apoC-III gene expression was studied in the streptozotocin-treated mouse model of IDDM. In the insulin-deficient diabetic state, these mice have elevated glucose and triglyceride levels and a 1.4- to 1.5-fold increase in hepatic apoC-III mRNA levels, by Northern analysis as well as quantitative solution hybridization RNase protection assay. Insulin treatment normalized the glucose and triglyceride levels and diminished hepatic apoC-III mRNA levels by 59%. Analysis of transcription rates using the nuclear run-on technique demonstrated that the changes in hepatic apoC-III mRNA levels were the results of changes in the transcriptional activity of the gene. To determine the role of insulin in the regulation of apoC-III transcription, HepG2 cells were transfected with an apoC-III reporter construct, and treated with different insulin concentrations. The results demonstrated that insulin treatment induced a dose-dependent down-regulation of apoC-III transcriptional activity. These data suggest that the apoC-III transcriptional changes seen in animals are caused by differences in insulin concentrations. Assuming that apoC-III mRNA levels reflect the synthesis and secretion of the protein, these results present the possibility that overexpression of the apoC-III gene could contribute to the hypertriglyceridemia observed in IDDM.The Journal of Lipid Research 12/1994; 35(11):1918-24. · 5.56 Impact Factor