Article

Gabapentin Acts within the Locus Coeruleus to Alleviate Neuropathic Pain

Department of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157-1009, USA.
Anesthesiology (Impact Factor: 6.17). 01/2009; 109(6):1077-84. DOI: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e31818dac9c
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Gabapentin recruits descending inhibition to produce analgesia after nerve injury, but whether this is a local action in the brainstem is unknown. The authors hypothesized that gabapentin activates noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) by a local action.
Male rats underwent L5-L6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) and received drugs by intra-LC or systemic routes for behavior testing, immunohistochemistry in the LC, and microdialysis in the spinal dorsal horn. In other studies, brainstem slices from normal and SNL animals were used for immunohistochemistry.
SNL increased phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (pCREB)-expressing nuclei bilaterally in the LC, and increased noradrenaline release in the spinal dorsal horn. Gabapentin, whether in isolated brainstem slices or in conscious or anesthetized animals, increased pCREB-expressing nuclei in the LC. The net increase in pCREB expression by gabapentin did not differ between normal and SNL conditions. This gabapentin-induced pCREB activation in LC neurons was abolished by an AMPA receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). Intra-LC-injected gabapentin reduced hypersensitivity in SNL rats in a dose-dependent manner. Both intra-LC coadministration of CNQX and intrathecal administration of the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan blocked antihypersensitivity by intra-LC gabapentin. Intravenous gabapentin induced noradrenaline release in the spinal dorsal horn. The net amount of noradrenaline release by gabapentin is larger in SNL rats compared with the normal condition, although the percentage increases from the baseline were the same.
These results suggest that gabapentin acts directly in the brainstem via a glutamate-dependent mechanism to stimulate descending inhibition to produce antihypersensitivity after peripheral nerve injury.

3 Followers
 · 
100 Views
  • Pain 06/2014; 155(10). DOI:10.1016/j.pain.2014.06.012 · 5.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dexmedetomidine is used clinically to induce states of sedation that have been described as homologous to nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. A better understanding of the similarities and differences between NREM sleep and dexmedetomidine-induced sedation is essential for efforts to clarify the relationship between these two states. This study tested the hypothesis that dexmedetomidine-induced sedation is homologous to sleep.
    Sleep 10/2014; DOI:10.5665/sleep.4328 · 5.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In rodents, acute exposure to opioids results in transient antinociception followed by longer lasting hypersensitivity to tactile or thermal stimuli, a phenomenon termed opioid-induced hyperalgesia. This hypersensitivity can be blocked or reversed by intrathecally administered cyclooxygenase inhibitors, including ketorolac, suggesting a role for spinal prostaglandins. In surgical patients, the dose of intraoperative opioid, particularly the short-acting drug, remifentanil, is directly related to increased pain and opioid requirements for many hours postoperatively. In addition, experimentally induced tactile hypersensitivity in humans is exaggerated after cessation of remifentanil infusions. The degree of this experimental opioid-induced hyperalgesia is reduced by systemic treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors, and investigators have speculated that this reduction reflects the actions in the central nervous system, most likely in the spinal cord. To test this hypothesis, we measured cerebrospinal fluid prostaglandin E2 concentrations during and after remifentanil infusion in 30 volunteers. These volunteers received intrathecal ketorolac or saline in a random, blinded manner during intravenous remifentanil infusion after generation of hypersensitivity by topical capsaicin. Remifentanil reduced pain to noxious heat stimuli and reduced areas of capsaicin-induced hypersensitivity similarly in those receiving intrathecal ketorolac or saline. The primary outcome measure, area of capsaicin-induced hypersensitivity after stopping remifentanil, showed a similar increase in those receiving ketorolac as in those receiving saline. Cerebrospinal fluid prostaglandin E2 concentrations did not increase during postinfusion hyperalgesia compared with those during infusion, and they were not increased during infusion compared with those in historical controls. These data fail to support the hypothesis that acute opioid-induced hyperalgesia reflects spinal cyclooxygenase activation causing central sensitization.
    Pain 01/2015; 156(1):81-7. DOI:10.1016/j.pain.0000000000000005 · 5.84 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
5 Downloads
Available from