Predicting family burden following childhood traumatic brain injury: a cumulative risk approach.
ABSTRACT To examine the utility of a cumulative risk index (CRI) in predicting the family burden of injury (FBI) over time in families of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI).
One hundred eight children with severe or moderate TBI and their families participated in the study.
The measures used in the study include the Socioeconomic Composite Index, Life Stressors and Social Resources Inventory--Adult Form, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Child Behavior Checklist, Children's Depression Inventory, McMaster Family Assessment Device, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Family Burden of Injury Interview. In addition, information on injury-related risk was obtained via medical charts.
Participants were assessed immediately, 6, and 12 months postinjury and at a 4-year extended follow-up.
Risk variables were dichotomized (ie, high- or low-risk) and summed to create a CRI for each child. The CRI predicted the FBI at all assessments, even after accounting for autocorrelations across repeated assessments. Path coefficients between the outcome measures at each time point were significant, as were all path coefficients from the CRI to family burden at each time point. In addition, all fit indices were above the recommended guidelines, and the chi statistic indicated a good fit to the data.
The current study provides initial support for the utility of a CRI (ie, an index of accumulated risk factors) in predicting family outcomes over time for children with TBI. The time period immediately after injury best predicts the future levels of FBI; however, cumulative risk continues to influence the change across successive postinjury assessments. These results suggest that clinical interventions could be proactive or preventive by intervening with identified "at-risk" subgroups immediately following injury.
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ABSTRACT: Recently research in traumatic brain injury (TBI) intervention has identified the benefits of contextualized, embedded, functionally based approaches to maximize treatment outcomes. An essential component of contextualized intervention is the direct and purposeful consideration of the broader context, in which the person with TBI functions. However, systematic consideration of contextual factors remains limited both in research and clinical practice. The purposes of this modified narrative review were (1) to provide a succinct review of the available literature regarding the contextual factors that are specific to adolescent survivors of TBI, one of highest incidence groups for brain injury; (2) to connect these contextual factors to the direct long-term management of TBI and to identify their potential impact on outcome; and (3) to highlight areas that are open to research and clinical advances that could enhance positive outcomes for adolescent survivors of TBI. The framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY; 2007) was used as a foundation for this review. A systematic literature search was conducted using databases and hand searches. A total of 102 articles were originally identified. Twenty-five original research articles, eight review papers and four expert opinion papers met inclusion and exclusion criteria and were included in the final review. The body of research specifically focused on contextual factors is an emerging area. Early findings indicate that a focus on the direct modification of contextual factors is promising for the facilitation of positive outcomes long into the chronic phase of management for adolescences who have survived a TBI. The contextual factors included in this review were the overall ability of the school to support a student post-TBI, family psychosocial risk (sibling/sibling relationships/stress/burden/support), coping style (TBI survivor and their caregivers), and socioeconomic status of the family. Given the promise of these findings, research and clinical application efforts should be focused on identifying well-prescribed rehabilitation paradigms that capitalize on the modification of contextual factors throughout the recovery process. The results of this modified narrative review provide an initial summary of the available evidence for addressing contextual factors in the rehabilitation process for adolescents with TBI. This is an area that is wide open for both systematic research and clinical application and holds potential to improve long-term outcome for survivors of adolescent TBI. © 2015 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders 02/2015; DOI:10.1111/1460-6984.12153 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem. Psychiatric disorders with onset before the injury are more common than population base rates. Novel (postinjury onset) psychiatric disorders (NPD) are also common and complicate child function after injury. Novel disorders include personality change due to TBI, secondary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, other disruptive behavior disorders, and internalizing disorders. This article reviews preinjury psychiatric disorders as well as biopsychosocial risk factors and treatments for NPD.The Psychiatric clinics of North America 03/2014; 37(1):125-140. DOI:10.1016/j.psc.2013.11.003 · 1.87 Impact Factor