ARF in the mitochondria: The last frontier?

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514, USA.
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) (Impact Factor: 5.01). 01/2009; 7(23):3641-6. DOI: 10.4161/cc.7.23.7105
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The tumor suppressor ARF carries out different functions in different cellular compartments. In the nucleus, ARF interacts physically and functionally with Mdm2 to inhibit cell cycle progression through activation of p53. In the nucleolus, ARF interacts with B23/NPM to inhibit ribosomal biogenesis through control of rRNA processing. Recent studies have expanded ARF's territory into the mitochondria. New data have shown that ARF interacts with the mitochondrial protein p32/C1QBP and that the interaction is critical in order for ARF to localize to the mitochondria and induce apoptosis. Remarkably, the ARF-p32 interaction, and hence ARF's pro-apoptotic function, can be interrupted by human cancer-derived mutations in exon2 of the p14(ARF)-p16(INK4a) gene locus. Here, we discuss the implications of these studies and their potential relevance to human cancer.


Available from: Koji Itahana, Apr 25, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ARF suppresses aberrant cell growth upon c-Myc overexpression by activating p53 responses. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism by which ARF specifically restrains the oncogenic potential of c-Myc without affecting its normal physiological function is not well understood. Here, we show that low levels of c-Myc expression stimulate cell proliferation, whereas high levels inhibit by activating the ARF/p53 response. Although the mRNA levels of ARF are induced in both scenarios, the accumulation of ARF protein occurs only when ULF-mediated degradation of ARF is inhibited by c-Myc overexpression. Moreover, the levels of ARF are reduced through ULF-mediated ubiquitination upon DNA damage. Blocking ARF degradation by c-Myc overexpression dramatically stimulates the apoptotic responses. Our study reveals that ARF stability control is crucial for differentiating normal (low) versus oncogenic (high) levels of c-Myc expression and suggests that differential effects on ULF- mediated ARF ubiquitination by c-Myc levels act as a barrier in oncogene-induced stress responses.
    Molecular cell 06/2013; 51(1). DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2013.05.006 · 14.46 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ARF is a small, highly basic protein that can be induced by oncogenic stimuli and exerts growth-inhibitory and tumour-suppressive activities through the activation of p53. Here we show that, in human melanocytes, ARF is cytoplasmic, constitutively expressed, and required for maintaining low steady-state levels of superoxide under conditions of mitochondrial dysfunction. This mitochondrial activity of ARF is independent of its known autophagic and p53-dependent functions, and involves the evolutionarily conserved acidic motif GHDDGQ, which exhibits weak homology to BCL-2 homology 3 (BH3) domains and mediates interaction with BCL-xL-an important regulator of mitochondrial redox homeostasis. Melanoma-predisposing CDKN2A germline mutations, which affect conserved glycine and aspartate residues within the GHDDGQ motif, impair the ability of ARF to control superoxide production and suppress growth of melanoma cells in vivo. These results reveal an important cell-protective function of ARF that links mitochondrial dysfunction and susceptibility to melanoma.
    Nature Communications 11/2014; 5:5348. DOI:10.1038/ncomms6348 · 10.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Increased accumulation of p53 tumor suppressor protein is an early response to low-level stressors. To investigate the fate of mitochondrial-sequestered p53, mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) on a p53-deficient genetic background were transfected with p53-EGFP fusion protein led by a sense (m53-EGFP) or antisense (c53-EGFP) mitochondrial import signal. Rotenone exposure (100 nM, 1 h) triggered the translocation of m53-EGFP from mitochondrion to nucleus, thus shifting transfected cells from a mitochondrial p53 to a nuclear p53 state. Antibodies for p53 serine phosphorylation or lysine acetylation indicated a different post-translational status of recombinant p53 in the nucleus and mitochondrion, respectively. These data suggest that cycling of p53 through mitochondria may establish a direct pathway for p53 signaling from mitochondria to nucleus during mitochondrial dysfunction. PK11195, a pharmacological ligand of mitochondrial TSPO (formerly known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor), partially suppressed the release of mitochondria-sequestered p53. These findings support the notion that p53 function mediates a direct signaling pathway from mitochondria to nucleus during mitochondrial dysfunction.
    Cellular Signalling 07/2013; 25(12). DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2013.07.019 · 4.47 Impact Factor