Depression and Anxiety in the United States: Findings From the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Behavioral Surveillance Branch, 4770 Buford Highway, N.E., Mailstop K-66, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) (Impact Factor: 2.41). 01/2009; 59(12):1383-90. DOI: 10.1176/
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study examined the unadjusted and adjusted prevalence estimates of depression and anxiety at the state level and examined the odds ratios of depression and anxiety for selected risk behaviors, obesity, and chronic diseases.
The 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, a random-digit-dialed telephone survey, collected depression and anxiety data from 217,379 participants in 38 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Current depressive symptoms were assessed with the standardized and validated eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire, and lifetime diagnosis of depression and anxiety was assessed by two additional questions (one question for each diagnosis).
The overall prevalence of current depressive symptoms was 8.7% (range by state and territory, 5.3%-13.7%); of a lifetime diagnosis of depression, 15.7% (range, 6.8%-21.3%); and of a lifetime diagnosis of anxiety, 11.3% (range, 5.4%-17.2%). After sociodemographic characteristics, adverse health behaviors, and chronic illnesses were adjusted for, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, asthma, smoking, and obesity were all significantly associated with current depressive symptoms, a lifetime diagnosis of anxiety, and a lifetime diagnosis of depression. Physically inactive adults were significantly more likely than those who were physically active to have current depressive symptoms or a lifetime diagnosis of depression, whereas those who drank heavily were significantly more likely than those who did not to have current depressive symptoms or a lifetime diagnosis of anxiety.
Depression and anxiety were strongly associated with common chronic medical disorders and adverse health behaviors. Examination of mental health should therefore be an integral component of overall health care.

24 Reads
  • Source
    • "g h p j o u r n a l . c o m Please cite this article as: Kinley D.J., et al, Depression and anxiety disorders and the link to physician diagnosed cardiac disease and metabolic risk factors, Gen Hosp Psychiatry (2015), avoidance of certain health care behaviours, which could be detrimental for health [10] [18], as well as some support for protective effects of anxiety for cardiac outcomes [19] [20]. It is possible that in moderation, anxiety can lead to improved medical compliance and in extreme levels can lead to avoidance of health care behaviors such as medical appointments. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There has been increasing interest in the relationship between cardiac and metabolic conditions with mental illness. Many studies have found associations between these conditions and depression but results with anxiety disorders have been mixed. We explore these relationships in a nationally representative survey using physician diagnoses of physical conditions and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. Data came from the nationally representative German Health Survey (N=4181, age 18-65). Physician diagnoses of angina, myocardial infarction, congestive heart, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity were examined in relation to depression and anxiety disorders, which were assessed through a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between these conditions. After adjusting for sociodemographics, psychiatric comorbidity, and substance use, having an anxiety disorder was associated with increased odds of cardiac conditions and metabolic risk factors with odds ratios ranging from 1.3 to 3.3. Depression was not associated with any of the conditions but was associated with poor medical compliance for health conditions on two outcomes measured. Anxiety was also associated with reduced medical compliance for one health behaviour measured. Anxiety disorders, but not depression, were associated with metabolic and cardiac conditions in our sample. Both conditions were related to some aspects of poor self-care for health conditions and therefore may be linked to negative outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    General hospital psychiatry 04/2015; 37(4). DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2015.03.022 · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "). Sufferers of both Type 2 diabetes and depression are at greater risk for complications over five years (Lin et al., 2010), including mortality (Katon et al., 2005; Roglic and Unwin, 2010), compared to those without depression. Given the bidirectional relationship (Mezuk et al., 2008) and comorbidity between depression and diabetes, it is not surprising that many of the same poor lifestyle factors associated with Type 2 diabetes, specifically diet and physical activity, are also associated with depression (Strine et al., 2008; Weber et al., 2000). Diet is a major lifestyle factor implicated in, and used to manage Type 2 diabetes, and has also been shown to be associated with risk for depression. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Type 2 diabetes and depression are commonly comorbid high-prevalence chronic disorders. Diet is a key diabetes risk factor and recent research has highlighted the relevance of diet as a possible risk for factor common mental disorders. This study aimed to investigate the interrelationship among dietary patterns, diabetes and depression. Methods: Data were integrated from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (2009-2010) for adults aged 18+ (n=4588, Mean age=43yr). Depressive symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and diabetes status determined via self-report, usage of diabetic medication and/or fasting glucose levels ≥126mg/dL and a glycated hemoglobin level ≥6.5% (48mmol/mol). A 24-h dietary recall interview was given to determine intakes. Multiple logistic regression was employed, with depression the outcome, and dietary patterns and diabetes the predictors. Covariates included gender, age, marital status, education, race, adult food insecurity level, ratio of family income to poverty, and serum C-reactive protein. Results: Exploratory factor analysis revealed five dietary patterns (healthy; unhealthy; sweets; 'Mexican' style; breakfast) explaining 39.8% of the total variance. The healthy dietary pattern was associated with reduced odds of depression for those with diabetes (OR 0.68, 95% CI [0.52, 0.88], p=0.006) and those without diabetes (OR 0.79, 95% CI [0.64, 0.97], p=0.029) (interaction p=0.048). The relationship between the sweets dietary pattern and depression was fully explained by diabetes status. Conclusion: In this study, a healthy dietary pattern was associated with a reduced likelihood of depressive symptoms, especially for those with Type 2 diabetes.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 11/2014; 174C:215-224. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.11.030 · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Happier individuals have a healthier diet, eating more fruits and vegetables (Blanchflower, Oswald, & Stewart-Brown, 2013), and healthy parents in turn are likely to have healthier offspring (e.g., Carone et al., 2010). Conversely, people with depression are more likely to use alcohol to excess, be physically inactive, smoke, be obese, and suffer illnesses such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Strine et al., 2008). Happy people not only have better health but also have higher levels of fecundity. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evidence shows that people feel mild positive moods when no strong emotional events are occurring, a phenomenon known as positive mood offset. We offer an evolutionary explanation of this characteristic, showing that it improves fertility, fecundity, and health, and abets other characteristics that were critical to reproductive success. We review research showing that positive mood offset is virtually universal in the nations of the world, even among people who live in extremely difficult circumstances. Positive moods increase the likelihood of the types of adaptive behaviors that likely characterized our Paleolithic ancestors, such as creativity, planning, mating, and sociality. Because of the ubiquity and apparent advantages of positive moods, it is a reasonable hypothesis that humans were selected for positivity offset in our evolutionary past. We outline additional evidence that is needed to help confirm that positive mood offset is an evolutionary adaptation in humans and we explore the research questions that the hypothesis generates.
    Personality and Social Psychology Review 09/2014; 19(3). DOI:10.1177/1088868314544467 · 7.55 Impact Factor
Show more

Similar Publications