Neurocognitive and symptomatic predictors of functional outcome in bipolar disorders: a prospective 1 year follow-up study.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to estimate the predictive value of cognitive impairments and time spent ill in long-term functional outcome of patients with bipolar disorder (BD).
Thirty five patients with euthymic BD completed a neurocognitive battery to assess verbal memory, attention, and executive functions at study entry. The course of illness was documented prospectively for a period longer than 12 months using a modified life charting technique based on the NIMH life-charting method. Psychosocial functioning was assessed with the General Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) at the end of follow-up period when patients were euthymic.
Impairments in verbal memory and in attention, as well as subsyndromal depressive symptomatology were independent predictors of GAF score at the end of the study explaining 43% of variance. Similarly, impairments in attention and executive functioning were independent predictors of FAST score explaining 28% of variance.
We did not control factors that could affect functional outcome such as psychosocial interventions, familiar support and housing and financial resources.
Both cognitive impairments and time spent with subsyndromal depressive symptomatology may be illness features associated with poorer long-term functional outcome. Developing strategies to treat these illness features might contribute to enhance long-term functional outcome among patients with BD.
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ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairments and subsyndromal depressive symptoms are present during euthymic periods of bipolar disorder (BD). Most studies have determined that cognitive impairments and residual depressive symptoms have major impacts on psychosocial functioning. The aim of the present study was to identify the major factor responsible for low psychosocial functioning in a subgroup of patients with BD despite clinical recovery. Sixty patients with bipolar I disorder and 41 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Cognitive performance, neurological soft signs (NSSs), psychosocial functioning, residual mood symptoms and illness characteristics were assessed. Using the median value of the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) as the cut-off point, the patients were divided into two groups, high- (n=29) or low-functioning (n=31), and they were compared based on total NSS, residual depressive symptoms, cognitive performance and clinical variables. Performances on the verbal memory tests and social functioning were significantly worse in the euthymic patients with BD. Increased rates of NSS were identified in the patients compared with the normal controls. The low-functioning patients performed significantly worse on verbal memory, and their NSS and residual depressive symptoms were significantly higher compared to high-functioning patients. In the regression analysis, subsyndromal depressive symptoms and verbal learning measures were identified as the best predictors of psychosocial functioning. The patients were artificially separated into two groups based on a FAST score cut-off. In this study, residual depressive symptoms and verbal memory impairments were the most prominent factors associated with the level of functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 174C:336-341. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.12.026 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Cross-sectional and meta-analytic studies showed that patients with bipolar disorder (BD) had neurocognitive impairments even during periods of euthymia. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of BD patients with and without clinically significant cognitive impairments, as well as to analyze clinical and functional variables in these subgroups. Methods: Hundred patients with BD and 40 healthy controls were assessed with an extensive neurocognitive assessment. Soft (some cognitive domain with a performance below 1.5 SD of the mean) and hard (at least two domains with values below 2 SD of the mean) criteria were utilized to define clinically significant cognitive impairments. Results: Using both soft and hard criteria, the prevalence of clinically significant cognitive impairments was higher in people with BD than in healthy controls. 70% of patients only showed failures of small effect (d = 0.21-0.35) in 2 measures of executive functions. Moreover, 30% of patients were indistinguishable from healthy subjects in terms of both neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning. On the contrary, 30% of the sample showed more severe cognitive deficits than those usually reported in literature and had the worst psychosocial functioning. Conclusions: The fact that cognitive impairments are very heterogeneous among euthymic patients with BD could contribute to understanding differences in functional outcome. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.Journal of Affective Disorders 06/2014; 167C:118-124. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.05.059 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Recent studies revealed that nonconverters at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis comprise those who later remit from initial CHR state and those who do not remit and continue to have attenuated positive symptoms. CHR subjects who remit symptomatically are comparable to healthy controls for both baseline and longitudinal symptoms. However, the neurocognitive characteristics of this population are still obscure. Methods Seventy-five CHR subjects and 61 healthy controls were recruited, and their neurocognitive functions were assessed. CHR subjects were divided into converter, remitter, and non-remitter groups according to their clinical state during a 12 to 24 month follow-up. Results Only the remitter group was comparable to healthy controls in terms of baseline neurocognitive functions. We observed that remitters showed better performance at baseline on tasks of attention, immediate/delayed verbal memory, verbal fluency, and immediate visual memory compared with converters. Moreover, we found that performance on semantic fluency was significantly improved in remitters but declined in non-remitters over the 2-year follow-up; however, there was no significant difference between these two groups at baseline. Conclusion CHR nonconverters who later remit from an initial prodromal state do not show reduced neurocognitive functioning compared with healthy controls at baseline. Therefore, an advanced research diagnostic criterion for a CHR state that considers neurocognitive functions is needed to more precisely predict which patients will develop psychosis.Schizophrenia Research 03/2014; 153(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.01.018 · 4.43 Impact Factor