Neurocognitive and symptomatic predictors of functional outcome in bipolar disorders: a prospective 1 year follow-up study.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to estimate the predictive value of cognitive impairments and time spent ill in long-term functional outcome of patients with bipolar disorder (BD).
Thirty five patients with euthymic BD completed a neurocognitive battery to assess verbal memory, attention, and executive functions at study entry. The course of illness was documented prospectively for a period longer than 12 months using a modified life charting technique based on the NIMH life-charting method. Psychosocial functioning was assessed with the General Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) at the end of follow-up period when patients were euthymic.
Impairments in verbal memory and in attention, as well as subsyndromal depressive symptomatology were independent predictors of GAF score at the end of the study explaining 43% of variance. Similarly, impairments in attention and executive functioning were independent predictors of FAST score explaining 28% of variance.
We did not control factors that could affect functional outcome such as psychosocial interventions, familiar support and housing and financial resources.
Both cognitive impairments and time spent with subsyndromal depressive symptomatology may be illness features associated with poorer long-term functional outcome. Developing strategies to treat these illness features might contribute to enhance long-term functional outcome among patients with BD.
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ABSTRACT: To provide a systematic review of scientific literature on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on sustained attention in psychosis. We searched PubMed to identify fMRI studies pertaining sustained attention in both affective and non-affective psychosis. Only studies conducted on adult patients using a sustained attention task during fMRI scanning were included in the final review. The search was conducted on September 10(th), 2013. 15 fMRI studies met our inclusion criteria: 12 studies were focused on Schizophrenia and 3 on Bipolar Disorder Type I (BDI). Only half of the Schizophrenia studies and two of the BDI studies reported behavioral abnormalities, but all of them evidenced significant functional differences in brain regions related to the sustained attention system. Altered functioning of the insula was found in both Schizophrenia and BDI, and therefore proposed as a candidate trait marker for psychosis in general. On the other hand, other brain regions were differently impaired in affective and non-affective psychosis: alterations of cingulate cortex and thalamus seemed to be more common in Schizophrenia and amygdala dysfunctions in BDI. Neural correlates of sustained attention seem to be of great interest in the study of psychosis, highlighting differences and similarities between Schizophrenia and BDI.World journal of radiology. 06/2014; 6(6):261-73.
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ABSTRACT: Persistent cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder represent a major impediment to functional adjustment, but their static or progressive nature remains to be ascertained. The aim of this study was to synthesize findings from longitudinal research in order to examine the trajectory of cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder.Journal of Affective Disorders 08/2014; 164C:130-138. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairments and subsyndromal depressive symptoms are present during euthymic periods of bipolar disorder (BD). Most studies have determined that cognitive impairments and residual depressive symptoms have major impacts on psychosocial functioning. The aim of the present study was to identify the major factor responsible for low psychosocial functioning in a subgroup of patients with BD despite clinical recovery. Sixty patients with bipolar I disorder and 41 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Cognitive performance, neurological soft signs (NSSs), psychosocial functioning, residual mood symptoms and illness characteristics were assessed. Using the median value of the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) as the cut-off point, the patients were divided into two groups, high- (n=29) or low-functioning (n=31), and they were compared based on total NSS, residual depressive symptoms, cognitive performance and clinical variables. Performances on the verbal memory tests and social functioning were significantly worse in the euthymic patients with BD. Increased rates of NSS were identified in the patients compared with the normal controls. The low-functioning patients performed significantly worse on verbal memory, and their NSS and residual depressive symptoms were significantly higher compared to high-functioning patients. In the regression analysis, subsyndromal depressive symptoms and verbal learning measures were identified as the best predictors of psychosocial functioning. The patients were artificially separated into two groups based on a FAST score cut-off. In this study, residual depressive symptoms and verbal memory impairments were the most prominent factors associated with the level of functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 174C:336-341. · 3.76 Impact Factor