Impaired liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy using the Pringle maneuver: Protective effect of mesna.
ABSTRACT We investigated the role of the prophylactic administration of the antioxidant 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (mesna) on the hepatocyte-regenerating capacity following partial hepatectomy (PH) with concurrent Pringle maneuver.
Wistar rats were subjected to PH (70% hepatectomy), 30 min Pringle maneuver, PH plus Pringle with or without mesna pretreatment (400 mg/kg, per os, 3 h before Pringle), or sham operation. At 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 1 week after operation, relative liver weight, hepatocyte mitotic activity (mitotic index), the histopathological score and serum aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase concentrations were assessed. At 1 h after operation, oxidative stress markers (glutathione to glutathione disulfide ratio, malondialdehyde concentration, and superoxide dismutase activity) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity were assessed.
Hepatectomy stimulated the regenerating process and induced mild oxidative stress and the activation of NF-kappaB in hepatocytes, while causing tissue injury in the remnant liver. When PH was performed under Pringle maneuver, hepatocyte mitotic activity was substantially suppressed, although Pringle alone initiated a delayed regenerating response. Furthermore, Pringle maneuver deteriorated oxidative stress markers, markedly increased NF-kappaB activity, and aggravated tissue injury, as compared to hepatectomy alone. Mesna pretreatment prevented the Pringle-induced antimitotic effect and the induction of oxidative stress, inhibited the activation of NF-kappaB, while attenuating liver injury after PH under Pringle.
The excessive activation of NF-kappaB is related to the suppression of hepatocyte-regenerating activity following PH with concurrent liver ischemia. Mesna pretreatment protects the liver against the Pringle-induced antimitotic effect after PH via the prevention of oxidative stress and the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation.
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ABSTRACT: Current knowledge of liver regeneration after reduced liver transplantation is limited. Warm ischemia is one component of the reduced liver transplantation procedure that could have an impact on the regenerative response. To study this effect, we performed partial hepatectomy on male Long-Evans rats, with animals divided into four groups: group 1 underwent partial hepatectomy only; group 2 underwent partial hepatectomy and 40 min of ischemia; group 3 underwent partial hepatectomy, 40 min of ischemia and portocaval shunt surgery; and group 4 underwent partial hepatectomy and orthotopic autograft surgery. Group 5 consisted of sham-operated animals. Animals were killed 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr after surgery. Thymidine kinase activity, mitotic index, a liver mass index and ornithine decarboxylase levels were used as parameters of liver regeneration. Aspartate transaminase was recorded. Maximal thymidine kinase and mitotic index were observed in group 1 animals at 24 hr. In groups 2, 3 and 4 maximal thymidine kinase activity and mitotic activity were observed 24 hr later at 48 hr. The magnitude of the peak response in these groups appeared to correlate with the duration of portal venous occlusion, with greatest increases occurring in those groups where portal stasis was most prolonged. The increase in liver mass for these groups was also delayed with respect to group 1 animals. The anticipated peak in ornithine decarboxylase levels was seen at 4 hr in group 1. The ornithine decarboxylase response in the other groups was disorganized, with delay of the recorded peaks.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Hepatology 03/1993; 17(2):273-9. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy is regulated by several factors that activate or inhibit hepatocyte proliferation. A short period of ischemia-reperfusion (IR), called ischemic preconditioning (IPC), protects the liver against subsequent sustained ischemic insults. The present study investigated the effects of IPC on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy under IR in rats. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 45 min of total hepatic ischemia, and 70% hepatectomy was performed just before reperfusion. Animals were pre-treated with either IPC (10/15 min) (IPC + PHx group) or not (ischemia + PHx). The survival rate, serum transaminases, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and interleukin (IL)-6 levels, hepatocyte proliferation and histological change of the remnant liver were measured in both groups and compared with non-ischemic controls subjected to 70% hepatectomy alone (PHx group). The survival rate was significantly better in the IPC + PHx group than in the ischemia + PHx group. Furthermore, IPC reduced liver injury determined by liver histology and serum transaminases. There was an early rise in serum TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels in the ischemia + PHx group. Compared with non-ischemic controls, IPC significantly decreased TNF-alpha, but not IL-6 during the late (24 and 48 h) phases of reperfusion. Rats subjected to 70% hepatectomy and 45 min of hepatic ischemia showed significantly reduced hepatocyte proliferation (mitotic index, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and relative liver weight) when compared with animals subjected to hepatectomy alone. However, hepatocyte proliferation was markedly increased in rats pretreatment with IPC when compared with ischemic controls. These results suggest that ischemic pre-conditioning ameliorates the hepatic injury associated with ischemia-reperfusion and has a stimulatory effect on liver cell regeneration that may make it valuable as a hepatoprotective modality. Il-6 appears to be key mediator in promoting regeneration after combined ischemia and hepatic resection.Journal of Surgical Research 06/2005; 125(1):42-8. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effects of ischemia/reperfusion during 70% partial hepatectomy on hepatic regeneration was evaluated in normal rats and thioacetamide-induced cirrhotic rats. Total hepatic ischemia and reperfusion (15 min each) by portal-triad cross-clamping was repeated two times in normal rats and four times in cirrhotic rats during hepatectomy. The labeling index of hepatocytes on Day 1 after operation (POD) and hepatic regeneration ratio on POD 28 were measured. In normal rats, the repeated ischemia/reperfusion decreased the survival rate from 100 to 77% (P < 0.05), lowered the hepatocyte labeling index from 33.5 +/- 2.5 to 16.7 +/- 6.5%, and diminished the hepatic regeneration ratio from 199 +/- 17 to 137 +/- 12% (P < 0.01). However, portal-systemic shunt improved those levels to 100, 30.6 +/- 13.7, and 169 +/- 19%, respectively (P < 0.01). In cirrhotic rats, no portal congestion was observed and hepatic regeneration was not suppressed by ischemia/reperfusion. Thus, portal pooling and the reperfusion of pooled portal blood may be the cause of inhibition on hepatic regeneration and not ischemia/reperfusion of the liver itself. Therefore, repeated portal-triad cross-clamping for short periods of time during the resection of cirrhotic liver is not harmful for hepatic regeneration.Journal of Surgical Research 11/1994; 57(5):541-8. · 2.02 Impact Factor