Article

Occult hepatitis B virus infection in immunocompromised patients.

Study Group of Hepatitis, Infectious Disease, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical Science, State University of Campinas, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 1.1). 09/2008; 12(4):300-5. DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702008000400008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Occult hepatitis B infection is characterized by hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the serum in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). We assessed occult HBV infection prevalence in two groups of immunocompromised patients (maintenance hemodialysis patients and HIV-positive patients) presenting HBsAg-negative and anti-HBc positive serological patterns, co-infected or not by HCV. Thirty-four hemodialysis anti-HIV negative patients, 159 HIV-positive patients and 150 blood donors who were anti-HBc positive (control group) were selected. HBV-DNA was detected by nested-PCR. Occult hepatitis B infection was not observed in the hemodialysis patients group but was found in 5% of the HIV-patients and in 4% of the blood donors. Immunosuppression in HIV positive patients was not a determining factor for occult HBV infection. In addition, no significant relationship between HBV-DNA and HCV co-infection in the HIV-positive patient group was found. A lack of significant associations was also observed between positivity for HBV-DNA and CD4 count, viral load and previous lamivudine treatment in these HIV-positive patients.

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    ABSTRACT: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI), is characterized by low level hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in circulating blood and/or liver tissue. In clinical practice the presence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-/anti-HBs-negative subjects is considered indicative of OBI. OBI is mostly observed in the window period of acute HBV infection in blood donors and in recipients of blood and blood products, in hepatitis C virus chronic carriers, in patients under pharmacological immunosuppression, and in those with immunodepression due to HIV infection or cancer. Reactivation of OBI mostly occurs in anti-HIV-positive subjects, in patients treated with immunosuppressive therapy in onco-hematological settings, in patients who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, in those treated with anti-CD20 or anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody, or anti-tumor necrosis factors antibody for rheumatological diseases, or chemotherapy for solid tumors. Under these conditions the mortality rate for hepatic failure or progression of the underlying disease due to discontinuation of specific treatment can reach 20%. For patients with OBI, prophylaxis with nucleot(s)ide analogues should be based on the HBV serological markers, the underlying diseases and the type of immunosuppressive treatment. Lamivudine prophylaxis is indicated in hemopoietic stem cell transplantation and in onco-hematological diseases when high dose corticosteroids and rituximab are used; monitoring may be indicated when rituximab-sparing schedules are used, but early treatment should be applied as soon as HBsAg becomes detectable. This review article presents an up-to-date evaluation of the current knowledge on OBI.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the frequency of occult hepatitis B infection (OHBI) in a group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1+/ hepatitis B surface antigen negative (HBsAg)- patients from Mexico.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Haemodialysis patients are at increased risk of exposure to blood borne viruses. To reduce transmission in the UK, all haemodialysis patients are regularly screened, and if susceptible to Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, vaccinated. Methods This retrospective study was undertaken to determine the HBV immune status in a large dialysis cohort and the prevalence of occult HBV infection, defined as the presence of anti-HBcore antibody (anti-HBcAb) and HBV DNA without detectable HB surface antigen (HBsAg). Information on HBV status was retrieved from haemodialysis patients under the care of The Royal Free Hospital, London, UK between 2009–2010. Available sera from 138 of 161 anti-HBcAb positive/HBsAg negative individuals were anonymised and tested for HBV DNA by a real time quantitative PCR. Results 15 (2%) of 793 patients had chronic HBV infection (HBsAg positive). 161 (20%) were anti-HBcAb positive but HBsAg negative suggesting past infection. 335 (54%) of the remaining 617 patients were considered immune following vaccination (anti-HBsAb > 10 IU/L). Three (2.2%) of the 138 anti-HBcAb positive, HBsAg negative patients had detectable HBV DNA (3, 5 and 9 IU/ml). Standard liver function tests were normal in these patients. Conclusions In a large multi-ethnic London haemodialysis cohort, 20% patients had evidence of past HBV infection. Despite this, the prevalence of occult HBV was found to be low and the very low levels of HBV DNA detected are unlikely to pose a nosocomial transmission risk in the presence of robust vaccination and infection control measures.
    BMC Nephrology 02/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12882-015-0010-z · 1.52 Impact Factor

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