A Lower Hybrid Current Drive System for ITER and High Power CW Klystron Development
ABSTRACT A 20 MW∕5 GHz Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system was initially due to be commissioned and used for the second mission of ITER, i.e. the Q = 5 steady state target. Though not part of currently planned procurement phase, it is now under consideration for an earlier delivery. An LH program has been initiated under EFDA, following the ITER STAC recommendation, to provide a pre‐design document including the conceptual design, costing, possible procurement allocation, WBS and R&D needs.
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ABSTRACT: Heating and driving non-inductive current in plasmas by means of radio frequency waves in the range of the lower hybrid (LH) frequencies is important for steady-state (SS) operation in fusion (Fish 1987 Rev. Mod. Phys.59 175). The penetration of LH waves at higher densities has recently been reviewed (Goniche et al 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion52 124031) in order to assess the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) performance under conditions as close as possible to the ITER SS scenario. The analysis of various experiments performed on C-Mod, FTU, Tore Supra and JET indicates (Goniche et al 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion52 124031) a degradation of the current drive (CD) efficiency when the plasma density is increased, while at the same time the LH wave absorption shifts to the plasma periphery. JET pulses in H-mode confirm this trend and in addition it is found that the accessibility condition is not the main parameter to explain the reduction in the CD efficiency. This paper further discusses the LH deposition in H-mode plasmas and in particular it shows that lower pedestal density and higher temperature are beneficial regarding the LH wave penetration. The investigation presented here is based on the analysis of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectra in plasmas with fast electrons generated by LH waves. The study includes the numerical calculation of the ECE intensity and a comparison with experimental profiles in the plasma periphery for optically thin frequencies.Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 07/2012; 54(7). DOI:10.1088/0741-3335/54/7/074003 · 2.19 Impact Factor