Cyp11b1 Null Mouse, a Model of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
ABSTRACT Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia arising from mutations of 11beta-hydroxylase, the final enzyme in the glucocorticoid biosynthetic pathway, exhibit glucocorticoid deficiency, adrenal hyperplasia driven by unsuppressed hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity, and excess mineralocorticoid activity caused by the accumulation of deoxycorticosterone. A mouse model, in which exons 3-7 of Cyp11b1 (the gene encoding 11beta-hydroxylase) were replaced with cDNA encoding enhanced cyan fluorescent protein, was generated to investigate the underlying disease mechanisms. Enhanced cyan fluorescent protein was expressed appropriately in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal gland, and targeted knock-out was confirmed by urinary steroid profiles and, immunocytochemically, by the absence of 11beta-hydroxylase. The null mice exhibited glucocorticoid deficiency, mineralocorticoid excess, adrenal hyperplasia, mild hypertension, and hypokalemia. They also displayed glucose intolerance. Because rodents do not synthesize adrenal androgens, changes in reproductive function such as genital virilization of females were not anticipated. However, adult homozygote females were infertile, their ovaries showing an absence of corpora lutea and a central proliferation of disorganized steroidogenic tissue. Null females responded normally to superovulation, suggesting that raised systemic progesterone levels also contribute to infertility problems. The model reveals previously unrecognized phenotypic subtleties of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
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- "Thus , all of the mechanisms likely modulating cAMP levels also likely modulate p44 / p42 mapk activation and function . This is per - haps why the absence of mutations in MC2R ( review in Clark and Weber , 1998 ) or the absence of the key markers of zona glomeru - losa ( Lee et al . , 2005 ) or zona fasciculata ( Mullins et al . , 2009 ) affect not only steroidogenesis , but also the structural organization of the gland ."
ABSTRACT: Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) exerts trophic effects on adrenocortical cells. We studied the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated proteins kinases (MAPKs) in human embryonic kidney cells stably expressing the ACTH receptor, MC2R, and its accessory protein MRAPβ and in primary cultures of human adrenal fasciculata cells. ACTH induced a maximal increase in p44/p42(mapk) and of p38 MAPK phosphorylation after 5min. Neither the overexpression of wild-type arrestin2, arrestin3 or their respective dominant negative forms affected p44/p42(mapk) phosphorylation. However, preincubation with the recycling inhibitors brefeldin A and monensin attenuated both cAMP accumulation and p44/p42(mapk) phosphorylation proportionally. Cyclic AMP-related PKA inhibitors (H89, KI(6-22)) and Rp-cAMPS decreased p44/p42(mapk) phosphorylation but not ACTH-mediated cAMP production. The selective Epac1/2 activator, 8-pCPT-2'-O-MecAMP, did not modify the effect of ACTH. Thus, cAMP/PKA, but not cAMP/Epac1/2 pathways, or arrestin-coupled internalization of MC2R is involved in ACTH-induced p44/p42(mapk) phosphorylation by human MC2R. Together, ACTH binding to MC2R stimulates PKA-dependent p44/p42(mapk) phosphorylation.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 12/2010; 336(1-2):31-40. DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2010.12.030 · 4.24 Impact Factor
Dataset: Physiol Genomics
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ABSTRACT: Deoxycorticosterone (DOC: a weak mineralocorticoid) is the precursor to corticosterone (B: the major glucocorticoid in rodents) and aldosterone (the major mineralocorticoid). The genes Cyp11b1 and Cyp11b2 that encode the enzymes responsible for DOC to B (11beta-hydroxylase) and DOC to aldosterone (aldosterone synthase) conversions are located on the same chromosome. The aim of this study was to develop sensitive and specific ELISA methods to quantify urinary DOC and B concentrations to assess the physiological and genetic control of the Cyp11b1/b2 locus. Antibodies raised in rabbits against DOC and B and horse radish peroxidase-goat anti-rabbit IgG enzyme tracer were used to develop the assays. Urine samples collected from mice held in metabolic cages were extracted with dichloromethane and reconstituted in assay buffer. The assays were validated for specificity, sensitivity, parallelism, accuracy and imprecision. Cross-reactivities with major interfering steroids were minimal: DOC assay (progesterone=0.735% and corticosterone=0.045%), and for B assay (aldosterone=0.14%, 11-dehydro-B=0.006%, cortisol=0.016% and DOC=0.04%) and minimum detection limit for DOC ELISA was 2.2 pg/mL (6.6 pmol/L), and for B ELISA was 6.2 pg/mL (17.9 pmol/L). The validity of urinary DOC and B ELISAs was confirmed by the excellent correlation between the results obtained before and after solvent extraction and HPLC (DOC ELISA: Y=1.092X-0.054, R(2)=0.988; B ELISA: Y=1.047X-0.226, R(2)=0.996). Accuracy studies, parallelism and imprecision data were determined and all found to be satisfactory. The methods were used in a series of metabolic cage studies which demonstrated that (i) females produce more DOC and corticosterone than males; (ii) DOC and corticosterone respond to ACTH treatment but not dietary sodium restriction; (iii) DOC:B ratios in Cyp11b1 null mice were >200-fold greater than wild type.Steroids 08/2009; 74(12):938-44. DOI:10.1016/j.steroids.2009.06.009 · 2.72 Impact Factor