Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia arising from mutations of 11beta-hydroxylase, the final enzyme in the glucocorticoid biosynthetic pathway, exhibit glucocorticoid deficiency, adrenal hyperplasia driven by unsuppressed hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity, and excess mineralocorticoid activity caused by the accumulation of deoxycorticosterone. A mouse model, in which exons 3-7 of Cyp11b1 (the gene encoding 11beta-hydroxylase) were replaced with cDNA encoding enhanced cyan fluorescent protein, was generated to investigate the underlying disease mechanisms. Enhanced cyan fluorescent protein was expressed appropriately in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal gland, and targeted knock-out was confirmed by urinary steroid profiles and, immunocytochemically, by the absence of 11beta-hydroxylase. The null mice exhibited glucocorticoid deficiency, mineralocorticoid excess, adrenal hyperplasia, mild hypertension, and hypokalemia. They also displayed glucose intolerance. Because rodents do not synthesize adrenal androgens, changes in reproductive function such as genital virilization of females were not anticipated. However, adult homozygote females were infertile, their ovaries showing an absence of corpora lutea and a central proliferation of disorganized steroidogenic tissue. Null females responded normally to superovulation, suggesting that raised systemic progesterone levels also contribute to infertility problems. The model reveals previously unrecognized phenotypic subtleties of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
"Thus , all of the mechanisms likely modulating cAMP levels also likely modulate p44 / p42 mapk activation and function . This is per - haps why the absence of mutations in MC2R ( review in Clark and Weber , 1998 ) or the absence of the key markers of zona glomeru - losa ( Lee et al . , 2005 ) or zona fasciculata ( Mullins et al . , 2009 ) affect not only steroidogenesis , but also the structural organization of the gland ."
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) exerts trophic effects on adrenocortical cells. We studied the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated proteins kinases (MAPKs) in human embryonic kidney cells stably expressing the ACTH receptor, MC2R, and its accessory protein MRAPβ and in primary cultures of human adrenal fasciculata cells. ACTH induced a maximal increase in p44/p42(mapk) and of p38 MAPK phosphorylation after 5min. Neither the overexpression of wild-type arrestin2, arrestin3 or their respective dominant negative forms affected p44/p42(mapk) phosphorylation. However, preincubation with the recycling inhibitors brefeldin A and monensin attenuated both cAMP accumulation and p44/p42(mapk) phosphorylation proportionally. Cyclic AMP-related PKA inhibitors (H89, KI(6-22)) and Rp-cAMPS decreased p44/p42(mapk) phosphorylation but not ACTH-mediated cAMP production. The selective Epac1/2 activator, 8-pCPT-2'-O-MecAMP, did not modify the effect of ACTH. Thus, cAMP/PKA, but not cAMP/Epac1/2 pathways, or arrestin-coupled internalization of MC2R is involved in ACTH-induced p44/p42(mapk) phosphorylation by human MC2R. Together, ACTH binding to MC2R stimulates PKA-dependent p44/p42(mapk) phosphorylation.
"Mice were killed by CO2 inhalation after restraint stress, maximizing plasma corticosterone levels. Heparinized blood was collected by cardiac puncture, and plasma was stored for measurement of electrolytes, osmolality (freezing point depression), and hormones (32). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects on urinary steroid and electrolyte excretion and renal gene expression of chronic infusions of ACTH in the mouse. ACTH caused a sustained increase in corticosteroid excretion; aldosterone excretion was only transiently elevated. There was an increase in the excretion of deoxycorticosterone, a weak mineralocorticoid, to levels of physiological significance. Nevertheless, we observed neither antinatriuresis nor kaliuresis in ACTH-treated mice, and plasma renin activity was not suppressed. We identified no changes in expression of mineralocorticoid target genes. Water turnover was increased in chronic ACTH-treated mice, as were hematocrit and hypertonicity: volume contraction is consistent with high levels of glucocorticoid. ACTH-treated mice exhibited other signs of glucocorticoid excess, such as enhanced weight gain and involution of the thymus. We identified novel ACTH-induced changes in 1) genes involved in vitamin D (Cyp27b1, Cyp24a1, Gc) and calcium (Sgk, Calb1, Trpv5) metabolism associated with calciuria and phosphaturia; 2) genes that would be predicted to desensitize the kidney to glucocorticoid action (Nr3c1, Hsd11b1, Fkbp5); and 3) genes encoding transporters of enzyme systems associated with xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress. Although there is evidence that ACTH-induced hypertension is a function of physiological cross talk between glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, the present study suggests that the major changes in electrolyte and fluid homeostasis and renal function are attributable to glucocorticoids. The calcium and organic anion metabolism pathways that are affected by ACTH may explain some of the known adverse effects associated with glucocorticoid excess.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.