Involvement of a mitochondrial pathway and key role of hydrogen peroxide during eosinophil apoptosis induced by excretory-secretory products from Fasciola hepatica.
ABSTRACT Eosinophils (Eo) are typically associated with immune response to helminth. Previously, we demonstrated that excretory-secretory products (ESP) from Fasciola hepatica induce eosinophil apoptosis by a caspase-dependent mechanism. In this study, we observed that ESP caused mitochondrial-membrane depolarization of eosinophils leading to the release of cytochrome c. Also, ESP induced an increase in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which preceded the mitochondrial injury. We found a significant rise in hydrogen peroxide, but not in the anion superoxide levels. Furthermore, catalase, but not superoxide dismutase, inhibited the mitochondrial depolarization as well as apoptosis. So, ESP induce in Eo an early increase in the ROS production, mainly hydrogen peroxide, which precedes mitochondrial injury and leads again to apoptosis. Finally, we demonstrated the participation of hydrogen peroxide in the peritoneal Eo apoptosis in vivo, both during the early stages of experimental fasciolosis in rats and after intraperitoneal ESP treatment.
Article: New Insights into the Modulation of Immune Response by Fasciola hepatica Excretory-Secretory Products[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fasciola hepatica is a trematode that affects human and domestic ruminant health, causing significant economic losses in cattle estimated at US$2000 millon per year. Juvenile parasites migrating through the host tissues, as well as adults settle in the biliary ducts, are in contact with different cells from the immune system. Despite those interactions, the persistence of the parasite in the host for many years provides evidence of its ability to prevent or down-modulate the inflammatory response in the infection site. Different strategies have been developed by the parasite to prevent potential damage being induced by the immune response, thus allowing some parasites to reach the adult stage in a safe place such as the biliary ducts. In this review we discuss how excretory-secretory products (ESP) from F. hepatica can affect the functionality of pivotal immune cells, such as eosinophils and macrophages by inducing selective apoptosis pathways and alternative activation of macrophages. Furhermore, the modulatory effects of ESP on dendritic cell activation and lymphocyte proliferation is reviewed as a strategy to facilitate F. hepatica evasion of both innate and adaptive immunity.
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ABSTRACT: Helminths are parasitic organisms that can be broadly described as "worms" due to their elongated body plan, but which otherwise differ in shape, development, migratory routes and the predilection site of the adults and larvae. They are divided into three major groups: trematodes (flukes), which are leaf-shaped, hermaphroditic (except for blood flukes) flatworms with oral and ventral suckers; cestodes (tapeworms), which are segmented, hermaphroditic flatworms that inhabit the intestinal lumen; and nematodes (roundworms), which are dioecious, cylindrical parasites that inhabit intestinal and peripheral tissue sites. Helminths exhibit a sublime co-evolution with the host's immune system that has enabled them to successfully colonize almost all multicellular species present in every geographical environment, including over two billion humans. In the face of this challenge, the host immune system has evolved to strike a delicate balance between attempts to neutralize the infectious assault versus limitation of damage to host tissues. Among the most important cell types during helminthic invasion are granulocytes: eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils. Depending on the specific context, these leukocytes may have pivotal roles in host protection, immunopathology, or facilitation of helminth establishment. This review provides an overview of the function of granulocytes in helminthic infections.Current Medicinal Chemistry 02/2012; 19(10):1567-86. · 4.86 Impact Factor