Epstein–Barr virus in autoimmune diseases

and EA 3186 Agents Pathogènes et Inflammation, University of Franche Comté, Besançon, France.
Best practice & research. Clinical rheumatology (Impact Factor: 3.06). 11/2008; 22(5):883-96. DOI: 10.1016/j.berh.2008.09.007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) are complex disorders with a genetic background and the involvement of environmental factors, including viruses. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a plausible candidate for playing a role in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Both SLE and RA are characterized by high titers of anti-EBV antibodies and impaired T-cell responses to EBV antigens. Compared with normal subjects, elevated EBV load in peripheral blood has been observed in SLE and RA. EBV DNA or RNA has been evidenced in target organs of RA (synovium) or pSS (salivary glands). Finally, molecular mimicry has been demonstrated between EBV proteins and self antigens in these three conditions. In addition, SLE, RA, and pSS are associated with an increased risk of lymphoma with a potential role for EBV. The influence of new and emergent treatments of these autoimmune diseases (biological therapies) on EBV load and the course of latent EBV infection requires further studies.

Download full-text


Available from: Jean Roudier, Aug 21, 2015
  • Source
    • "The primary EBV infection occurs asymptomatically in childhood and typically persists throughout the life of the host. EBV is the cause of infectious mononucleosis [7] and is associated with specific forms of cancer, including Hodgkin's lymphoma [8], Burkitt's lymphoma [9], and nasopharyngeal carcinoma [10], and with autoimmune diseases [11]. In most asymptomatic carriers, the virus is periodically replicated, and the infectious virus is known as the EBV lytic cycle, which has been found to be associated with an increasing number of diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis [12] [13] and infectious mononucleosis [7]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are among the most widely used synthetic chemicals for the control of a wide variety of pests, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by OPs may be involved in the toxicity of various pesticides. Previous studies have demonstrated that a reactivation of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) could be induced by oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether OPs could reactivate EBV through ROS accumulation. The Raji cells were treated with chlorpyrifos (CPF), one of the most commonly used OPs. Oxidative stress indicators and the expression of the EBV immediate-early gene BZLF-1 were determined after CPF treatment. Our results show that CPF induces oxidative stress as evidenced by decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, accompanied by an increase in ROS production, DNA damage, glutathione (GSH) level, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity. Moreover, CPF treatment significantly enhances the expression of BZLF-1, and the increased BZLF-1 expression was ameliorated by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) incubation. These results suggest that OPs could contribute to the reactivation of the EBV lytic cycle through ROS induction, a process that may play an important role in the development of EBV-associated diseases.
    Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 01/2015; 2015:309125. DOI:10.1155/2015/309125 · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "[3] "
    Sjógren,s Syndrome, Edited by Eduardo M. Hernandez, 05/2014: chapter Chapter III: pages 71-96; Nova Science Publisher., ISBN: 978-1-63117-859-7
  • Source
    • "Another way in which putrescine levels could become elevated in a cell is from a viral infection, such as an Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV is suspected of having a role in autoimmune diseases (Toussirot and Roudier, 2008). When EBV becomes active in a cell, it increases the activity of the c-Myc protein (Bajaj et al., 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polyamines are small cations with unique combinations of charge and length that give them many putative interactions in cells. Polyamines are essential since they are involved in repli-cation, transcription, translation, and stabilization of macro-molecular complexes. However, polyamine synthesis competes with cellular methylation for S-adenosylmethionine, the methyl donor. Also, polyamine degradation can generate reactive molecules like acrolein. Therefore, polyamine levels are tightly controlled. This control may be compromised in autoimmune diseases since elevated polyamine levels are seen in autoimmune diseases. Here a hypothesis is presented explaining how polyamines can stabilize autoantigens. In addition, the hypothesis explains how polyamines can inappropriately activate enzymes involved in NETosis, a process in which chromatin is modified and extruded from cells as extracellular traps that bind pathogens during an immune response.This polyamine-induced enzymatic activity can lead to an increase in NETosis resulting in release of autoantigenic material and tissue damage.
    Frontiers in Immunology 04/2013; 4(Article 91):1-8. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00091
Show more