ABSTRACT Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a disease based on a clinicopathologic diagnosis that involves a localized eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus. A significant increase in the diagnosis of pediatric EoE has occurred over the past 10 years not only due to a greater recognition of the disease among gastroenterologists, allergists, and pathologists but also secondary to an increased incidence of the disease. EoE is defined by the presence of 15 or more esophageal eosinophils per high-power field isolated to the esophagus associated with clinical symptoms that do not respond to acid suppression therapy. Although the exact mechanism of EoE is unknown, food allergens are thought to have an important role. Effective treatment options include dietary restrictions and various steroid formulations.