Article

Peripheral arterial disease affects kinematics during walking

University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198-3280, USA.
Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter (Impact Factor: 2.98). 12/2008; 49(1):127-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvs.2008.08.013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Claudication is the most common manifestation of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) producing significant ambulatory compromise. The purpose of this study was to use advanced biomechanical analysis to characterize the kinematic ambulatory pattern of claudicating patients. We hypothesized that compared with control subjects, claudicating patients have altered kinematic gait patterns that can be fully characterized utilizing advanced biomechanical analysis.
The study examined fourteen PAD patients (age: 58 +/- 3.4 years; weight: 80.99 +/- 15.64 kg) with clinically diagnosed femoro-popliteal occlusive disease (Ankle Brachial Index (ABI): 0.56 +/- 0.03, range 0.45 to 0.65) and five healthy controls (age: 53 +/- 3.4 years; weight: 87.38 +/- 12.75 kg; ABI >or= 1). Kinematic parameters (hip, knee, and ankle joint angles in the sagittal plane) were evaluated during gait in patients before and after the onset of claudication pain and compared with healthy controls. Joint angles were calculated during stance time. Dependent variables were assessed (maximum and minimum flexion and extension angles and ranges of motion) and mean ensemble curves were generated. Time to occurrence of the discrete variables was also identified.
Significantly greater ankle plantar flexion in early stance and ankle range of motion during stance was observed in PAD patients (P < .05). Time to maximum ankle plantar flexion was shorter and time to maximum ankle dorsiflexion was longer in PAD patients (P < .05). These differences were noted when comparing PAD patients prior to and after the onset of claudication with healthy controls. The analysis of the kinematic parameters of the knee and the hip joints revealed no significant differences between PAD patients and controls.
PAD patients with claudication demonstrate significant gait alterations in the ankle joint that are present prior to the onset of claudication pain. In contrast, the joint motion of the hip and knee did not differ in PAD patients when compared with controls. Further research is needed to verify our findings and assess the impact of more proximal disease in PAD patients as well as the effect of revascularization on joint kinematics.

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    • "Previous authors have shown that older adults demonstrate altered gait patterns, particularly at the hip and ankle joints (Graf et al., 2005; Kerrigan et al., 1998, 2001). The added burden of PAD-IC can elicit further gait adaptations including slower walking speed, shorter step length (Scherer et al., 1998), reduced calf muscle ability (Ayzin Rosoky et al., 2000; Celis et al., 2009; Crowther et al., 2007; Mockford et al., 2010; Scott- Pandorf et al., 2007) as well as decreased hip extension (Crowther et al., 2007). These gait adaptations are present even in the absence of pain but worsen as IC pain increases (Ayzin Rosoky et al., 2000; Mockford et al., 2010; Scott-Pandorf et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: The management of peripheral arterial disease with intermittent claudication includes angioplasty, pharmaceutical therapy, risk factor modification and exercise therapy. Supervised exercise programmes are used sporadically but may improve the distance that an individual with claudication can walk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 3-month supervised exercise programme on improving gait parameters in patients with intermittent claudication. 12 participants were recruited (mean (SD) - age: 67.3 (6.8) years, height: 1.67 (0.09) m, mass: 79.4 (14.0) kg, ankle brachial pressure index: 0.73 (0.17)) from the local vascular unit and enrolled in a supervised exercise programme. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected at the following time points: pain-free walking, initial claudication pain, absolute claudication pain and after a patient-defined rest period. Data were collected before and after the 3-month supervised exercise programme. No significant differences were found in any of the gait parameters post-intervention including pain-free walking speed (P=0.274), peak hip extension (P=0.125), peak ankle plantarflexion (P=0.254), or first vertical ground reaction force peak (P=0.654). No significant gait differences were found across different levels of pain pre- or post-intervention. The lack of improvement post-intervention observed suggests that the current exercise protocol was not tailored to elicit significant improvements in patients with intermittent claudication, specifically. The results indicate that exercise programmes may show improved results post-intervention if they are longer in duration and varied in intensity. Further research into more detailed muscle and biomechanical adaptations is needed to inform exercise programmes specific to this population.
    Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) 06/2012; 27(8):845-51. DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2012.05.002 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    • "As such, we do not know the distribution of work within the joints of the lower limbs, thus making it difficult to target exercise or strength rehabilitation towards a single muscle or joint. However , considering the results from our previous studies strongly indicating decreased performance from the ankle plantar flexors [5] [6] [21] [27] [28], the plantar flexors should be considered a major cause behind the decreased positive work by the affected limb during push-off as well as overall for the entire stance phase. Second, the individual limbs method for calculating external work was initially used for comparing the transition between steps [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: External work was utilized to measure differences between the unaffected and the affected limb in patients with unilateral peripheral arterial disease compared to healthy controls. Patients with unilateral peripheral arterial disease have shown deficits in peak joint powers during walking in the unaffected and affected legs. However, no research has detailed the amount of work that is being performed by each leg compared to healthy controls even though such an analysis would provide valuable information on the energy output from the affected and the unaffected legs. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) the unaffected and affected leg would perform less work than healthy controls in a pain-free state, and (b) the onset of symptomatic claudication pain would result in further changes in the external work. Results showed that during a pain-free state, both the unaffected and affected legs perform less work than the healthy controls. After onset of claudication pain, the work output by the affected limb becomes further decreased while the unaffected limb experiences changes in negative external work. These findings combined with recent evidence of decreased peak powers in both legs in unilateral peripheral arterial disease patients reflects altered pathomechanics in both limbs compared to healthy controls.
    Medical Engineering & Physics 02/2012; 34(10). DOI:10.1016/j.medengphy.2012.01.004 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    • "These findings should be substantiated with longer randomized studies using larger patient populations to objectively determine whether drug therapy can result in changes in the gait mechanics of PAD patients. In addition, future studies should be performed to determine the effect of medication in improving gait mechanics while patients are experiencing claudication pain in a manner that parallels the work by Celis et al. (2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmacological treatment has been used to alleviate the claudication symptoms and improve walking performance in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients. However, the effects of claudication treatments on gait mechanics have not been objectively identified with biomechanical techniques. For this study, 20 PAD patients were assigned to take either pentoxifylline (n=11) or cilostazol (n=9), the two FDA-approved pharmacological therapies used to treat intermittent claudication symptoms. All patients completed a gait evaluation protocol that involved the acquisition of kinematic and kinetic gait data before use of the medication and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results showed that treatment with either pentoxifylline or cilostazol resulted in limited overall improvement in gait parameters including joint angles and joint moments. Walking speed was unchanged, in either treatment group, as a result of the medication. These results suggest that to improve biomechanical walking parameters of PAD patients, clinicians cannot rely on drug therapies alone.
    Journal of applied biomechanics 08/2010; 26(3):341-8. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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