Adolescent vaccination: coverage achieved by ages 13-15 years, and vaccinations received as recommended during ages 11-12 years, National Health Interview Survey 1997-2003.
ABSTRACT To present progress toward Healthy People 2010 vaccination objectives for adolescents aged 13-15 years, and to determine how much catch-up and routine vaccination was administered at the recommended ages of 11-12 years.
Data from the 1997-2003 National Health Interview Survey were evaluated. In the first analysis, vaccination coverage levels for adolescents aged 13-15 years were determined for each survey year. Main outcome measures include the percent of adolescents who had received the three-dose hepatitis B vaccine (Hep B) series, the two-dose measles/mumps/rubella vaccine (MMR) series, the tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) booster, and one dose of varicella vaccine. In the second analysis, data from all survey years were combined and vaccination dates were analyzed to determine the percentage of adolescents who were missing any vaccines at ages 11-12 and received them at that age. Data for varicella vaccine were sufficient only for the first analysis.
Among the approximately 15%-20% of respondents who reported vaccination history from records in the home and who were reporting on a 13-15-year-old, coverage with three doses of Hep B increased significantly during 1997-2001, from 15.2% to 55.0%. Coverage with MMR and Td fluctuated, with no significant increase; highs were 76.7% for MMR in 2003 and 36.2% for Td in 2002. Examination of vaccination dates for all surveyed adolescents showed that among 11-12-year-olds who needed catch-up vaccine, 0.6%-31.3% were brought up to date for Hep B and 22.1%-31.8% were brought up to date for MMR. For Td, 2.6%-15.4% of 11-12-year-olds who had not previously received Td received the vaccine.
Vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-15 years was below the Healthy People 2010 goals of 90%, but generally increased over the survey years. However, the suboptimal delivery of needed vaccines during ages 11 and 12 is concerning in light of recent vaccine recommendations targeted at this age. Continuing to focus on strategies to make adolescent preventive care, including vaccination, a new norm is essential.
- SourceAvailable from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We examined current racial/ethnic differences in immunization coverage rates among US preschool children. Using National Immunization Survey data from 1996 through 2001, we compared vaccination coverage rates between non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and Asian preschool children. During the 6-year study period, the immunization coverage gap between White and Black children widened by an average of 1.1% each year, and the gap between White and Hispanic children widened by an average of 0.5% each year. The gap between White and Asian children narrowed by an average of 0.8% each year. Racial/ethnic disparities in preschool immunization coverage rates have increased significantly among some groups; critical improvements in identifying, understanding, and addressing race/ethnicity-specific health care differences are needed to achieve the Healthy People 2010 goal of eliminating disparities.American Journal of Public Health 07/2004; 94(6):973-7. · 3.93 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study assessed the effectiveness of a middle school vaccination requirement for raising second-dose measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine and hepatitis B vaccine coverage among adolescents. Random-digit-dialed telephone surveys were conducted before (1998) and after (1999) the implementation of a vaccination requirement for entry into the seventh grade in San Diego, Calif. Vaccination coverage was higher among children subject to the vaccination requirement (seventh-grade students; 60%) than among fifth- and sixth-grade students 1 year before the requirement (13%, P <.001), and 8th- through 12th-grade students not subject to the requirement (27%, P <.0001). Middle school-entry vaccination requirements can rapidly and substantially raise vaccination coverage among students subject to the law.American Journal of Public Health 07/2004; 94(6):978-84. · 3.93 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is concern that commercial health insurance reimbursement levels for immunizations and well-child visits may not be meeting the delivery and practice overhead costs within some areas of the country. There is also concern that insufficient physician reimbursement levels may negatively affect the quality of children's health care. We examined the relationships between commercial health insurance reimbursement levels to physicians for pediatric services and rates of immunization and well visits for children and adolescents. Quality of care was measured by examining state-level immunization and well-visit rates for 2002, which were obtained from the National Committee for Quality Assurance, Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS). Reimbursement data were obtained from the American Academy of Pediatrics Medical Cost Model. Variations in the child and adolescent HEDIS measures were examined as a function of physician reimbursement levels for pediatric services across states. HEDIS data were available for a total of 32 states. Partial correlations controlled for pediatrician concentration, as collected from the US Bureau of the Census and the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile data. Compliance with HEDIS immunization rates for all recommended vaccines was 60% for children and 24% for adolescents. By excluding the varicella vaccine, these rates increased to 70% for children and 44% for adolescents. Adherence rates for well visits were also higher for infants (60%) and children (59%) than for adolescents (34%). Physician reimbursement levels for pediatric services varied from 16.88 dollars per member per month to 32.06 dollars per member per month across states. Statistically significant positive correlations for reimbursement levels were found for 8 of the 16 HEDIS measures examined. Correlations with reimbursement levels were found for childhood immunizations (r = 0.42), infant well visits (r = 0.44), childhood well visits (r = 0.46), and adolescent well visits (r = 0.42). Reimbursement levels were especially strongly related to the rates of adolescent varicella vaccination (r = 0.53). When partial correlations were examined to control for pediatrician concentration, the correlations were reduced by 0.09 on average, suggesting that pediatrician supply may serve as an intermediary of the reimbursement relationship. Immunization and well-visit rates for infants, children, and adolescents were positively linked with physician reimbursement rates for those services. Although methodologic limitations suggest caution when interpreting these findings, more attention should be given to physician reimbursement levels as a possible predictor of immunization and well-visit rates as measures of quality of care and to the importance of reimbursement levels for pediatrician recruitment.PEDIATRICS 05/2005; 115(4):833-8. · 4.47 Impact Factor