Adolescent vaccination: coverage achieved by ages 13-15 years, and vaccinations received as recommended during ages 11-12 years, National Health Interview Survey 1997-2003.
ABSTRACT To present progress toward Healthy People 2010 vaccination objectives for adolescents aged 13-15 years, and to determine how much catch-up and routine vaccination was administered at the recommended ages of 11-12 years.
Data from the 1997-2003 National Health Interview Survey were evaluated. In the first analysis, vaccination coverage levels for adolescents aged 13-15 years were determined for each survey year. Main outcome measures include the percent of adolescents who had received the three-dose hepatitis B vaccine (Hep B) series, the two-dose measles/mumps/rubella vaccine (MMR) series, the tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) booster, and one dose of varicella vaccine. In the second analysis, data from all survey years were combined and vaccination dates were analyzed to determine the percentage of adolescents who were missing any vaccines at ages 11-12 and received them at that age. Data for varicella vaccine were sufficient only for the first analysis.
Among the approximately 15%-20% of respondents who reported vaccination history from records in the home and who were reporting on a 13-15-year-old, coverage with three doses of Hep B increased significantly during 1997-2001, from 15.2% to 55.0%. Coverage with MMR and Td fluctuated, with no significant increase; highs were 76.7% for MMR in 2003 and 36.2% for Td in 2002. Examination of vaccination dates for all surveyed adolescents showed that among 11-12-year-olds who needed catch-up vaccine, 0.6%-31.3% were brought up to date for Hep B and 22.1%-31.8% were brought up to date for MMR. For Td, 2.6%-15.4% of 11-12-year-olds who had not previously received Td received the vaccine.
Vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-15 years was below the Healthy People 2010 goals of 90%, but generally increased over the survey years. However, the suboptimal delivery of needed vaccines during ages 11 and 12 is concerning in light of recent vaccine recommendations targeted at this age. Continuing to focus on strategies to make adolescent preventive care, including vaccination, a new norm is essential.
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ABSTRACT: Continued suboptimal measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine uptake has re-established measles epidemic risk, prompting a UK catch-up campaign in 2008-09 for children who missed MMR doses at scheduled age. Predictors of vaccine uptake during catch-ups are poorly understood, however evidence from routine schedule uptake suggests demographics and attitudes may be central. This work explored this hypothesis using a robust evidence-based measure. Cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire with objective behavioural outcome. 365 UK parents, whose children were aged 5-18 years and had received <2 MMR doses before the 2008-09 UK catch-up started. Parents' attitudes and demographics, parent-reported receipt of invitation to receive catch-up MMR dose(s), and catch-up MMR uptake according to child's medical record (receipt of MMR doses during year 1 of the catch-up). Perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.09-2.87) and younger child age (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68-0.89) were the only independent predictors of catch-up MMR uptake in the sample overall. Uptake predictors differed by whether the child had received 0 MMR doses or 1 MMR dose before the catch-up. Receipt of catch-up invitation predicted uptake only in the 0 dose group (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.18-10.05), whilst perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake predicted uptake only in the 1 dose group (OR = 9.61, 95% CI = 2.57-35.97). Attitudes and demographics explained only 28% of MMR uptake in the 0 dose group compared with 61% in the 1 dose group. Catch-up MMR invitations may effectively move children from 0 to 1 MMR doses (unimmunised to partially immunised), whilst attitudinal interventions highlighting social benefits of MMR may effectively move children from 1 to 2 MMR doses (partially to fully immunised). Older children may be best targeted through school-based programmes. A formal evaluation element should be incorporated into future catch-up campaigns to inform their continuing improvement.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(5):e19381. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infection with a high-risk type of the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major contributing factor in the vast majority of cervical cancers. Dissemination of the HPV vaccine is critical in reducing the risk of the disease. This descriptive review of HPV vaccine uptake in papers published between 2006 and 2011 focuses on studies conducted in girls and young women. In the United States, rates of immunization as per the protocol for teens (age 13-17 years) range from 6% to 75% and those for young women (age 18-26 years) range from 4% to 79%, although the samples and data collection methods vary. The epidemiology of HPV, the mechanisms of action, protocols for vaccine immunization, rates of uptake, and barriers to vaccination at the policy, provider, and patient levels are reviewed. Various intervention techniques are described, and policy-level programs, such as legislation supporting mandates, subsidized public education, and cost-reduction initiatives, are also explored. Increased distribution of the HPV vaccine in school-based clinics, evidencebased scripts for provider counseling of young patients and their parents, concurrent immunizations to adolescents, prevention visits, greater patient education and outreach, and the dissemination of academic detailing can help to boost vaccine uptake, particularly in underresourced communities. Population-based surveillance is necessary for robust estimates of uptake over time. Additional research is needed to comprehensively examine socio-demographic, psychosocial, and sociocultural factors that predict vaccine uptake according to the protocol. Increased study of the vaccine's long-term effectiveness, in both males and females and among extended age groups, is warranted.Advances in Therapy 08/2011; 28(8):615-39. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Varicella is a highly contagious disease caused by primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). VZV infection, as well as varicella vaccination, induces VZV-specific antibody and T-cell-mediated immunity, essential for recovery. The immune responses developed contribute to protection following re-exposure to VZV. When cell-mediated immunity declines, as occurs with aging or immunosuppression, reactivation of VZV leads to herpes zoster (HZ). It has been almost 20 years since universal varicella vaccination has been implemented in many areas around the globe and this has resulted in a significant reduction of varicella-associated disease burden. Successes are reviewed here, whilst emphasis is put on the challenges ahead. Most countries that have not implemented routine childhood varicella vaccination have chosen to vaccinate high-risk groups alone. The main reasons for not introducing universal vaccination are discussed, including fear of age shift of peak incidence age and of HZ incidence increase. Possible reasons for not observing the predicted increase in HZ incidence are explored. The advantages and disadvantages of universal vs targeted vaccination as well as different vaccination schedules are discussed.Therapeutic advances in vaccines. 03/2014; 2(2):39-55.