Adolescent Vaccination: Coverage Achieved by Ages 13-15 Years, and Vaccinations Received as Recommended During Ages 11-12 Years, National Health Interview Survey 1997-2003
ABSTRACT To present progress toward Healthy People 2010 vaccination objectives for adolescents aged 13-15 years, and to determine how much catch-up and routine vaccination was administered at the recommended ages of 11-12 years.
Data from the 1997-2003 National Health Interview Survey were evaluated. In the first analysis, vaccination coverage levels for adolescents aged 13-15 years were determined for each survey year. Main outcome measures include the percent of adolescents who had received the three-dose hepatitis B vaccine (Hep B) series, the two-dose measles/mumps/rubella vaccine (MMR) series, the tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) booster, and one dose of varicella vaccine. In the second analysis, data from all survey years were combined and vaccination dates were analyzed to determine the percentage of adolescents who were missing any vaccines at ages 11-12 and received them at that age. Data for varicella vaccine were sufficient only for the first analysis.
Among the approximately 15%-20% of respondents who reported vaccination history from records in the home and who were reporting on a 13-15-year-old, coverage with three doses of Hep B increased significantly during 1997-2001, from 15.2% to 55.0%. Coverage with MMR and Td fluctuated, with no significant increase; highs were 76.7% for MMR in 2003 and 36.2% for Td in 2002. Examination of vaccination dates for all surveyed adolescents showed that among 11-12-year-olds who needed catch-up vaccine, 0.6%-31.3% were brought up to date for Hep B and 22.1%-31.8% were brought up to date for MMR. For Td, 2.6%-15.4% of 11-12-year-olds who had not previously received Td received the vaccine.
Vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-15 years was below the Healthy People 2010 goals of 90%, but generally increased over the survey years. However, the suboptimal delivery of needed vaccines during ages 11 and 12 is concerning in light of recent vaccine recommendations targeted at this age. Continuing to focus on strategies to make adolescent preventive care, including vaccination, a new norm is essential.
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ABSTRACT: In the past, immunization programs worldwide mainly focused on the delivery of infant and early childhood vaccines. An increasing awareness of the importance of investing in adolescents' health has led to the introduction of new vaccines targeted specifically to adolescents over the last ten years: this has improved the adolescent's opportunities to protect from certain diseases for which they are at an increased risk. Safe and effective vaccines against human papilloma virus, Neisseria meningitides and Bordetella pertussis are recommended in many parts of the world; nevertheless, vaccination coverage in this age group is relatively low compared to coverage in infants. Barriers to adolescent immuniza-tion are believed to be complex and multifactorial but overcoming these barriers will be of primary importance for the future.
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ABSTRACT: To explore whether, and to what extent, minor consent influences adolescent vaccine delivery in the United States. A telephone survey was completed by 263 professionals with responsibilities for adolescent health care and/or vaccination in 43 states. Measures included perceived frequency of unaccompanied minor visits and perceived likelihood of vaccine delivery to unaccompanied minors in hypothetical scenarios that varied by adolescent age, vaccine type, visit type, and clinical setting. Among the 76 respondents most familiar with private primary care clinics, 47.1% reported perceptions that 17-year-old patients often present without a parent/legal guardian. Among the 104 respondents most familiar with public primary care clinics, 56.7% reported that 17-year-old patients often present alone. In response to hypothetical scenarios, approximately 30% of respondents familiar with private clinics and 50% of respondents familiar with public clinics reported perceptions that unaccompanied 17-year-old adolescents would not receive influenza, Tdap, or human papillomavirus vaccines during routine check-ups because they could not provide consent. Perceived likelihood of unaccompanied minors receiving vaccines when seen for confidential services in primary care, sexually transmitted disease, and Title X/family planning clinics varied significantly by vaccine type and clinical setting. On average, respondents reported that they would support minors having the ability to self-consent for vaccines at age 14. The inability of minors to consent for vaccines is likely one barrier to vaccination. Interventions to increase adolescent vaccination should consider strategies that increase the ability of unaccompanied minors, particularly older minors, to receive vaccines within the context of legal, ethical, and professional guidelines.Journal of Adolescent Health 09/2013; 54(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.07.028 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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