Induction and persistence of Mx protein in tissues, blood and plasma of Atlantic salmon parr, Salmo salar, injected with poly I:C.
ABSTRACT The expression of Mx transcripts and Mx protein was monitored at weekly intervals for 7 weeks, by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, in the kidney, liver, gill and blood of Atlantic salmon parr following injection of poly I:C. Elevated levels of Mx transcripts compared to PBS injected control fish were found in the tissues at week 1. Background levels were then found up to week 7, with the exception of week 4 when high levels were again found in poly I:C injected fish as well as control fish. Immunostaining for Mx protein in the kidney, liver and gill of poly I:C injected fish was higher than in control fish from weeks 1-4, but little staining was found in the tissues of both poly I:C treated and control fish thereafter. Blood monocytes stained consistently in all fish, suggesting that this leucocyte type constitutively expressed Mx protein. From weeks 2-4, lymphocytes of both groups consistently stained for Mx protein but the consistency decreased at weeks 5-7. Staining of neutrophils was also inconsistent. Western blots of plasma showed an immunoreactive band of 76 kDa typical of salmon Mx protein. Semi-quantitative measurements of dot blots showed poly I:C injected fish to have higher levels of plasma Mx protein than controls on weeks 1-4 with very low levels on weeks 5-7. The results indicate that following induction of an interferon response with poly I:C, Atlantic salmon parr maintain elevated levels of Mx protein in tissues, leucocytes and blood plasma for about 4 weeks. Production of Mx protein by blood monocytes appears to be constitutive, though production by lymphocytes and neutrophils was less consistent.
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ABSTRACT: Interferons (IFNs) are secreted proteins, which induce vertebrate cells into an antiviral state. In mammals, three families of IFNs (type I IFN, type II IFN and IFN-lambda) can be distinguished on the basis of gene structure, protein structure and functional properties. Type I IFNs, which include IFN-alpha and IFN-beta, are encoded by intron lacking genes and have a major role in the first line of defense against viruses. The human IFN-lambdas have similar biological properties as type I IFNs, but are encoded by intron containing genes. Type II IFN is identical to IFN-gamma, which is produced by T helper 1 cells in response to mitogens and antigens and has a key role in adaptive cell mediated immunity. IFNs, which show structural and functional properties similar to mammalian type I IFNs, have recently been cloned from Atlantic salmon, channel catfish, pufferfish, and zebrafish. Teleost fish appear to have at least two type I IFN genes. Phylogenetic sequence analysis shows that the fish type I IFNs form a group separated from the avian type I IFNs and the mammalian IFN-alpha, -beta and -lambda groups. Interestingly, the fish IFNs possess the same exon/intron structure as the IFN-lambdas, but show most sequence similarity to IFN-alpha. Recently, IFN-gamma genes have also been cloned from several fish species and shown to have the same exon/intron structure as mammalian IFN-gamma genes. The antiviral effect of mammalian type I IFN is exerted through binding to the IFN-alpha/beta-receptor, which triggers signal transduction through the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway resulting in expression of Mx and other antiviral proteins. Putative IFN receptor genes have been identified in pufferfish. Several interferon regulatory factors and members of the JAK-STAT pathway have also been identified in various fish species. Moreover, Mx and several other interferon stimulated genes have been cloned and studied in fish. Furthermore, antiviral activity of Mx protein from Atlantic salmon and Japanese flounder has recently been demonstrated.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 03/2006; 20(2):172-91. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The expression in kidney tissue of interferon type I (IFNalpha) and type II (IFNgamma) genes and two of their inducible genes, Mx and gammaIP were monitored, using qRT-PCR, in a population of Atlantic salmon prior to and over the period of smolting and sea water transfer. The smolting process was induced by photoperiod manipulation in October and smolts were transferred to sea water in December. Prior to extending the light period in October, the fish showed extremely low level expression of the genes assayed. However, immediately on extending the light and up until 1 week after transfer to sea water, 26 of the 90 fish sampled showed up-regulated expression for IFNalpha, Mx and gammaIP. The highest levels were shown by two fish on the 2 days prior to sea water transfer. Eleven fish displayed elevated expression of IFNgamma but there was no apparent association with smolting or sea water transfer or expression of the other genes. At the end of the sampling period, 30 fish were tested by standard virological methods and found to be virus free. The results indicate that during the smolting process, Atlantic salmon consititutively express IFNalpha and Mx mRNA. Those individuals which express Mx close to the time of transfer to sea water would be expected to have high levels of the anti-viral Mx protein in tissues for the longest time after sea water transfer. This could provide an innate defence against viral pathogens which post-smolts may encounter for the first time on entering the marine environment. Those individuals which express Mx early in the smolting process may be more at risk of developing IPN or other viral diseases as post-smolts.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 10/2007; 23(3):514-20. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were (i) to identify alternative Mx stimulatory compounds in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and to characterise the kinetics and intensity of the stimulated responses and (ii) to investigate the effect of temperature on such responses by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Mx transcripts were measured in Atlantic salmon parr kept at 14 degrees C and injected with either LPS, the synthetic double-stranded polyribonucleotide poly I:C, Vibrio anguillarum serotypes I and II-ordalii bacterin, beta-glucan, whole yeast cells or yeast RNA. Sampling periods lasted until transcripts were undetectable or up to three weeks after immunisation. The effect of temperature on poly I:C-induced Mx response was studied by injecting parr kept at 6 degrees C. Newly hatched salmon fry were immersed once, twice or three times in the Vibrio bacterin diluted five or 10 times and sampled for three weeks. None of the yeast compounds induced Mx expression in Atlantic salmon parr. LPS induced a very low Mx response 2 and 3 days after injection. The Vibrio bacterin administered by injection in parr (but not by immersion in fry) resulted in strong Mx induction on days 2 and 3, disappearing by day 6. Poly I: C-induced Mx responses that were more intense and longer lasting than those induced by the bacterin, peaking on day 3 and lasting over 6 days, disappearing by day 9 at 14 degrees C. Lower temperature caused a longer lasting Mx response to poly I:C (at least 21 days), which peaked on days 7-14, with a similar intensity and no delayed onset as compared with the response at 14 degrees C. However, some toxicity of the poly I:C was indicated in treatments at 6 degrees C.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 09/2004; 17(2):159-70. · 2.96 Impact Factor