This study describes the learning effects of thematic peer-review discussion groups (Hendriksen, 2000. Begeleid intervisie model, Collegiale advisering en probleemoplossing, Nelissen, Baarn.) on developing nursing students' competence in providing spiritual care. It also discusses the factors that might influence the learning process. The method of peer-review is a form of reflective learning based on the theory of experiential learning (Kolb, 1984. Experiential learning, Experience as the source of learning development. Englewoods Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hill). It was part of an educational programme on spiritual care in nursing for third-year undergraduate nursing students from two nursing schools in the Netherlands. Reflective journals (n=203) kept by students throughout the peer-review process were analysed qualitatively The analysis shows that students reflect on spirituality in the context of personal experiences in nursing practice. In addition, they discuss the nursing process and organizational aspects of spiritual care. The results show that the first two phases in the experiential learning cycle appear prominently; these are 'inclusion of actual experience' and 'reflecting on this experience'. The phases of 'abstraction of experience' and 'experimenting with new behaviour' are less evident. We will discuss possible explanations for these findings according to factors related to education, the students and the tutors and make recommendations for follow-up research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As students' problem-solving processes in writing are rarely observed in face-to-face instruction, they have few opportunities to participate collaboratively in peer review to improve their texts. This study reports the design of a reciprocal peer review system for students to observe and learn from each other when writing. A sample of 95 undergraduate students was recruited to construct texts with the support of web-based reciprocal peer review in the processes of modelling, coaching, scaffolding, articulation, reflection and exploration. The results of the study revealed that these six processes helped students externalise and visualise their internal writing processes so that they could observe and learn from peers in writing as well as support peers in making text revisions. During their extensive and reciprocal interactions with various peers, students addressed mutual concerns in each other's text revisions. They constructed collaborative language knowledge for text improvement as local revisions (grammatical corrections) and global revisions (corrections on the development, organization or style of a text) were made in their final texts. The students' perceptions towards text improvement in this web-based peer review of modelling, coaching, scaffolding, articulation, reflection and exploration are also discussed in this study.
British Journal of Educational Technology 06/2011; 42(4):687 - 700. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2010.01059.x · 1.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spiritual care is an important component of holistic care. In Australia competency statements relating to nursing practice emphasise the need to provide care that addresses the spiritual as well as other aspects of being. However, many nurses feel they are poorly prepared to provide spiritual care. This is attributed largely to lack a of spiritual care education provided in undergraduate nursing programmes. A few higher education providers have responded to this lack of spiritual care education by incorporating specific content related to this area into their undergraduate nursing programme. Minimal international studies have investigated the impact of spiritual care education on undergraduate nursing students and no Australian studies were identified. This review explores spiritual care education in undergraduate nursing programmes and identifies the need for an Australian study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims and objectives. To explore teachers’ understanding of spirituality and how they prepare undergraduate nursing students to recognise spiritual cues and learn to assess and provide spiritual care.
Background. Nursing education addresses patient care in all domains of the person. Systematic teaching and supervision of students to prepare them to assist patients spiritually is an important part of holistic care. However, few role models for spiritual care are seen in clinical practice, and limited research addresses necessary student competencies or how teachers can best facilitate this process.
Design. Grounded theory was used to identify teachers’ main concern and develop a substantive grounded theory.
Methods. Data collected during semi-structured interviews at three Norwegian University Colleges in five focus groups with 19 undergraduate nursing teachers were conducted from 2008 to 2009. Data were analysed through constant comparison of transcribed interviews until categories emerged and were saturated.
Results. The participants’ main concern was ‘How to help students recognize cues and ways of providing spiritual care’. Participants resolved this by ‘Journeying with Students through their Maturation’. This basic social process has three iterative phases that develop throughout the nursing programme: ‘Raising Student awareness to Recognize the Essence of Spirituality’, ‘Assisting Students to Overcome Personal Barriers’, and ‘Mentoring Students’ Competency in Spiritual Care’.
Conclusion. Nursing education should prepare students to recognise and act on spiritual cues. Making spiritual assessment and interventions more visible and explicit throughout nursing programmes, in both classroom and clinical settings, will facilitate student maturation as they learn to integrate theoretical thinking into clinical practice.
Relevance to clinical practice. Nursing students need role models who demonstrate spiritual care in the fast-paced hospital environment as well as in other clinical practice settings. To model spirituality as part of nursing care can assist students to overcome their vulnerability and to safeguard ethical issues and promote patient integrity.
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