Outcomes of obstetric hospitalizations among women with inflammatory bowel disease in the United States.
ABSTRACT Pregnant women with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) are at increased risk of adverse outcomes compared with pregnant women without these disorders. We estimated the occurrence of pregnancies in women with CD and UC in the United States and compared outcomes between these patients and the non-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) obstetric population.
By using the 2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we estimated the number of obstetric hospitalizations, deliveries, and Cesarean deliveries in women with CD, UC, and those without IBD. Outcomes included prevalences of Cesarean delivery, venous thromboembolism (VTE), blood transfusion, and malnutrition.
Of an estimated 4.21 million deliveries, 2372 and 1368 occurred in women with CD and UC, respectively. Compared with the non-IBD population, adjusted odds of Cesarean delivery were higher in women with CD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44-2.04) and UC (aOR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.66). The risk of VTE was substantially higher in women with CD (aOR, 6.12; 95% CI, 2.91-12.9) and UC (aOR, 8.44; 95% CI, 3.71-19.2) vs the non-IBD population. Blood transfusions occurred more frequently in women with CD (aOR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.51-5.26), whereas protein-calorie malnutrition occurred more frequently in women with CD (aOR, 20.0; 95% CI, 8.8-45.4) or UC (aOR, 60.8; 95% CI, 28.2-131.0).
Adverse pregnancy and maternal outcomes occur more frequently in women with IBD. Measures should be undertaken to reduce maternal complications such as VTE and malnutrition in women with these disorders.
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ABSTRACT: 248 INTRODUCTION Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic inflammatory diseases that have an increasing incidence and prevalence. The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is precisely unknown, but there are complex interactions of genetic, immunological, and environmental factors (1). IBD is characterized by a peak age of onset during the peak reproductive years (2). Approximately 55% of patients are less than 35 years of age at the time of diagnosis. Of these, 25% will conceive for the first time following diagnosis (3). Parenthood is one of the The peak age of onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is simultaneous with the peak reproductive years. Patients have many concerns about the impact of IBD on fertility and pregnancy outcomes. The most important reason for voluntary childlessness is the fear of side effects from medications for IBD. Decision making for medical therapy is a complex equation. It is important to summarize available infor-mation about the management of IBD during pregnancy and its interactions. Among IBD patients, those undergoing surgery are at risk for reductions in fertility. Patients with ileal pouches–anal anastomosis (IPAA) experience higher rates of infertility. Disease activity at the time of con-ception is the main determinant of the impact of IBD on adverse pregnancy outcomes. In different nations, disease activity and relapse depend on many factors and may even be slightly lower during pregnancy. The recommended mode of delivery in IBD is still controversial. However, there is an increased rate of cesarean sections in women with IBD. Choosing the appropriate method of delivery should be based on the obstetrician's opinion, however active perianal disease and the presence of an ileoanal pouch are two major exceptions. If women remain on their maintenance therapy, there would be no increased risk of a flare-up during the postpartum period. In most patients, maintaining remission with medication outweighs the risks of their adverse effects. However, the pros and cons must be discussed with the patient and deci-sions should be made on an individual basis. Among all drugs used in IBD treatment, only methotrexate (MTX) and thalidomide are contraindicated in pregnancy.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of vascular complications. Thromboembolic complications, both venous and arterial, are serious extraintestinal manifestations complicating the course of IBD and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with IBD are more prone to thromboembolic complications and IBD per se is a risk factor for thromboembolic disease. Data suggest that thrombosis is a specific feature of IBD that can be involved in both the occurrence of thromboembolic events and the pathogenesis of the disease. The exact etiology for this special association between IBD and thromboembolism is as yet unknown, but it is thought that multiple acquired and inherited factors are interacting and producing the increased tendency for thrombosis in the local intestinal microvasculature, as well as in the systemic circulation. Clinicians' awareness of the risks, and their ability to promptly diagnose and manage tromboembolic complications are of vital importance. In this review we discuss how thromboembolic disease is related to IBD, specifically focusing on: (1) the epidemiology and clinical features of thromboembolic complications in IBD; (2) the pathophysiology of thrombosis in IBD; and (3) strategies for the prevention and management of thromboembolic complications in IBD patients.
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ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease affects more than 2 million people in Europe, with almost 20% of patients being diagnosed in pediatric age. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at increased risk of thromboembolic complications which may affect patients' morbidity and mortality. The risk of the most common thromboembolic events, such as deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, are estimated to be three-fold increased compared to controls, but many other districts can be affected. Moreover, patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease experience thromboembolic events at a younger age compared to general population. Many factors have been investigated as determinants of the pro-thrombotic tendency such as acquired risk factors or genetic and immune abnormalities, but a unique cause has not been found. Many efforts have been focused on the study of abnormalities in the coagulation cascade, its natural inhibitors and the fibrinolytic system components and both quantitative and qualitative alterations have been demonstrated. Recently the role of platelets and microvascular endothelium has been reviewed, as the possible link between the inflammatory and hemostatic process.Thrombosis Journal 04/2015; 13:14. DOI:10.1186/s12959-015-0044-2 · 1.31 Impact Factor