Effective treatment of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia with oral bile salts in Gunn rats.
ABSTRACT We tested the hypothesis that oral administration of bile salts, which are known to increase the biliary excretion of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), decreases unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in the Gunn rat model.
Adult Gunn rats were fed a standard diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.5 weight % ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) or cholic acid (CA) for 1 or 6 weeks. UCB and urobilinoids, a family of intestinal UCB breakdown products, were determined in plasma, feces, or both. After 6 weeks of treatment, tracer 3H-UCB was administered intravenously to determine steady-state UCB kinetics over the next 60 hours.
One-week treatment with UDCA or CA decreased plasma UCB concentrations by 21% and 30%, respectively (each P < .01). During the first 4 days of treatment, both UDCA and CA increased the combined fecal excretion of UCB and urobilinoids (+52% and +32%, respectively; each P < .01). Prolongation of treatment to 6 weeks caused a persistent decrease in plasma UCB concentrations to approximately 40% below baseline (each bile salt P < .001). (3)H-UCB kinetic studies showed that UDCA and CA administration decreased UCB pool size (-33% and -32%, respectively; each P < .05) and increased UCB fractional turnover (+33% and +25%, respectively; each P < .05).
Dietary bile salt administration induces a large, persistent decrease in plasma UCB concentrations in Gunn rats. Both UDCA and CA enhance UCB turnover by increasing its fecal disposal. These results support the application of oral bile salt treatment in patients with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate, whether binding to micelles has a function in hepatic transport, biliary excretion of three organic anions, phenolphthalein-beta-D-glucuronide (PG), dibromosulphthalein (DBSP) and indocyanine green (ICG) was studied in rats during saline, taurocholate or dehydrocholate administration. Taurocholate causes a weak choleresis with formation of biliary micelles, dehydrocholate a strong choleresis with little micelle formation. The two bile salts did not uniformly influence biliary excretion of the organic anions: biliary excretion of ICG (12.9 mumoles/kg) and DBSP (75.0 mumoles/kg) was stimulated by both bile salts: ICG excretion most pronounced by taurocholate and DBSP excretion most strongly by dehydrocholate. Biliary output of PG (25.8 and 200 mumoles/kg) was not stimulated by bile salt administration. Binding of PG, DBSP and ICG to biliary micelles was studied in sedimentation experiments by ultracentrifugation. PG, DBSP and ICG in bile showed a similar sedimentation pattern as 3H-taurocholate in bile, which indicates an association of all three anions with biliary micelles. Thus, the influence of bile salts on biliary transport of organic anions varies with the compound studied and the bile salt used, effects which cannot be explained by differences in binding to biliary micelles.Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 11/1975; 290(4):375-87. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The rate of peroxidation of unbound, unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) was used to assess the interactions of UCB with four taurine-conjugated bile salts at pH 8.2, 37 degrees C, and an ionic strength of 0.15. Each of the four structurally different bile salts markedly decreased the rate of peroxidation of UCB in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP); 30% of UCB was bound even at low, premicellar bile salt concentrations (1 mM). At high bile salt concentrations (75 mM), taurocholate (TC) and tauro-3 alpha,7 alpha-dihydroxy-12-oxo-5 beta-cholan-24-oate (T12-OXO) exhibited the highest degree of inhibition of UCB peroxidation; only 0.6% and 1.1% of UCB were unbound, respectively. Taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC) yielded somewhat less inhibition with 2.0% of UCB unbound. Taurodehydrocholate (TDHC), a bile salt that does not form micelles but does form dimers, was comparable to TC and T12-OXO with unbound UCB of 1.0%. With TC and T12-OXO, apparent affinity for UCB was at least four times greater above the published critical micellar concentration (CMC) than in the premicellar range. TCDC was only studied above its CMC value and only one region of UCB binding was noted. Interaction of UCB with TDHC was similar to premicellar interactions with TC and T12-OXO below 25 mM, but increased to values intermediate between monomer and micelle above 40 mM TDHC, compatible with formation of TDHC dimers above 20 mM. These data show that there are differences in the ability of bile salts to bind UCB. Thus, alterations in bile salt profile in bile might lead to higher concentrations of free UCB in bile predisposing to pigment gallstones.The Journal of Lipid Research 11/1988; 29(10):1289-96. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A stable isotope dilution method is described that allows measurement of cholic acid (CA) kinetics, that is, pool size, fractional turnover rate (FTR), and synthesis rate in mice, rats, and humans. Decay of administered [2,2,4,4-2H4]CA enrichment was measured in time in 50-microl plasma samples by gas-liquid chromatography/electron capture negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry, applying the pentafluorobenzyl-trimethylsilyl derivative. The kinetic data expressed species-dependent differences. The CA pool sizes were 16.8 +/- 2.1, 10.6 +/- 1.2, and 2.4 +/- 0.7 micromol/100 g body weight for mice, rats, and humans, respectively. The FTR values were 0.44 +/- 0.03, 0.88 +/- 0.10, and 0.46 +/- 0.14 per day for mice, rats, and humans. The corresponding synthesis rates were 7.3 +/- 1.6, 9.3 +/- 0.1, and 1.0 +/- 0.2 micromol/100 g body weight per day. The human data agreed well with literature data obtained by conventional isotope dilution techniques. For rats and mice these are the first reported isotope dilution data. The method was validated by confirmation of isotopic equilibrium between biliary CA and plasma CA in the rat. Its applicability was demonstrated by the observation of increased CA FTR and CA synthesis rate in rats fed cholestyramine, which is known to increase fecal bile acid excretion. The presented stable isotope dilution method enables the determination of CA kinetic parameters in small plasma samples. The method can be applied in unanesthetized rodents with an intact enterohepatic circulation and may also be valuable when studying the development of human neonatal bile acid kinetics.The Journal of Lipid Research 12/2001; 42(11):1923-9. · 4.39 Impact Factor