Posture, dynamic stability, and voluntary movement.
ABSTRACT This paper addresses the question of why voluntary movement, which induces a perturbation to balance, is possible without falling down. It proceeds from a joint biomechanical and physiological approach, and consists of three parts. The first one introduces some basic concepts that constitute a theoretical framework for experimental studies. The second part considers the various categories of "postural adjustments" (PAs) and presents major data on "anticipatory postural adjustments" (APA). The last part explores the concept of "posturokinetic capacity" (PKC) and its possible applications.
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ABSTRACT: Time to stabilization (TTS) has been introduced as a method to analyze dynamic postural stability during jump and landing tasks, but has also been applied during the transition task from double-leg stance (DLS) to single-leg stance (SLS). However, the application of the originally described TTS technique during the latter task has some important limitations. The first goal of this study was to present an adapted version of the TTS technique to provide an effective alternative method to better analyze postural stability during the transition from DLS to SLS. The second goal was to study the influence of pathology and different speeds on postural stability outcomes. Fifteen healthy control subjects and 15 subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI) performed the transition task on their preferred speed and as fast as possible, with eyes open and with eyes closed. Subjects with CAI performed the transition significantly slower when moving at their preferred speed with eyes closed. The time subjects needed to reach a new stability point was not discriminative between groups and largely dependent on movement speed. However, the amount of sway after this new stability point was significantly increased in the CAI group and when eyes were closed. The results of this study suggest that subjects with CAI have a decreased ability to overcome the postural perturbation created by the voluntary movement from DLS to SLS. Focusing only on TTS during the transition from DLS to SLS may lead at least in some cases to misinterpretations when assessing postural stability.Journal of biomechanics 07/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated the influence of gait speed on the control of mediolateral dynamic stability during gait initiation. Thirteen healthy young adults initiated gait at three self selected speeds: Slow, Normal and Fast. The results indicated that the duration of anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) decreased from Slow to Fast, i.e. the time allocated to propel the centre of mass (COM) towards the stance-leg side was shortened. Likely as an attempt at compensation, the peak of the anticipatory centre of pressure (COP) shift increased. However, COP compensation was not fully efficient since the results indicated that the mediolateral COM shift towards the stance-leg side at swing foot-off decreased with gait speed. Consequently, the COM shift towards the swing-leg side at swing heel-contact increased from Slow to Fast, indicating that the mediolateral COM fall during step execution increased as gait speed rose. However, this increased COM fall was compensated by greater step width so that the margin of stability (the distance between the base-of-support boundary and the mediolateral component of the “extrapolated centre of mass”) at heel-contact remained unchanged across the speed conditions. Furthermore, a positive correlation between the mediolateral extrapolated COM position at heel-contact and step width was found, indicating that the greater the mediolateral COM fall, the greater the step width. Globally, these results suggest that mediolateral APA and step width are modulated with gait speed so as to maintain equivalent mediolateral dynamical stability at the time of swing heel-contact.Journal of Biomechanics 01/2014; 47(2):417-23. · 2.72 Impact Factor