Posture, dynamic stability, and voluntary movement.
ABSTRACT This paper addresses the question of why voluntary movement, which induces a perturbation to balance, is possible without falling down. It proceeds from a joint biomechanical and physiological approach, and consists of three parts. The first one introduces some basic concepts that constitute a theoretical framework for experimental studies. The second part considers the various categories of "postural adjustments" (PAs) and presents major data on "anticipatory postural adjustments" (APA). The last part explores the concept of "posturokinetic capacity" (PKC) and its possible applications.
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ABSTRACT: Forward reaching is an integral part of many essential daily activities. It is often performed while standing quietly or after standing up from a seated position. This study sought to determine how a preceding balance task and aging would affect the task performance and movement strategy. Twenty-two healthy young and 20 older adults participated in this study and performed forward reaching under two task conditions. In forward reach (FR), reaching was performed during quiet standing. In up-and-reach (UR), subjects stood up from a seated position and then reached forward. A motion analysis system was used to calculate the location of the center of mass (COM) and joint angles at the initial and final positions, and the finger, COM, and joint angular displacements during the reaching task. For both groups, UR was initiated in a more flexed posture and had a significantly shorter reach distance and greater ankle dorsiflexion angle, compared to FR. The location of the COM, however, did not differ between the two task conditions. Older adults were found to significantly slow down their downward and forward COM motions in UR but not young adults. These findings showed that a preceding balance task increased the task demand and required modifications in the movement strategy. For older adults, the impact of increased task demand was greater, and adopting a cautious strategy could help to complete the task safely.
Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 10/2013; 56:e303-e304. DOI:10.1016/j.rehab.2013.07.779
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ABSTRACT: The present study focuses on the role of superficial abdominal muscles revealed by electromyographic recordings during the maintenance of a bipedal stance perturbed by post-exercise hyperventilation. Twelve healthy subjects performed six 30-s postural tests: one pre-exercise test while breathing quietly, then one test every minute for the 5min immediately following a maximum-intensity, incremental cycling exercise test. Displacement of the centre of pressure in the sagittal plane was monitored over time. Myoelectric activities of the obliquus externus (OE), obliquus internus (OI) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles were recorded by surface electromyography (EMG). Metabolic parameters were measured with a portable telemetric device. The change in ventilatory drive induced by exercise was accompanied by a significant increase in both postural sway parameters and EMG activities. For OE and OI, the increased EMG activities were prominent during expiration, whereas OI was silent during inspiration. OE and RA were activated during both expiration and inspiration. It is concluded that the compensation of respiratory disturbances of the erect posture appears to be less effective when minute ventilation increases. The patterns of muscle activity suggest that abdominal muscles are controlled differentially and that their functional coordination is dependent on the respiratory demand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Gait & posture 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.03.012 · 2.30 Impact Factor