Inhibitory kappa B kinase-beta is a target for specific nuclear factor kappa B-mediated delayed cardioprotection
ABSTRACT Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury remains a vexing problem. Translating experimental strategies that deliver protective agents before the ischemic insult limits clinical applicability. We targeted 2 proteins in the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway, inhibitory kappa B kinase-beta, and 26S cardiac proteasome to determine their cardioprotective effects when delivered during reperfusion.
C57BL/6 mice underwent left anterior descending artery occlusion for 30 minutes. An inhibitory kappa B kinase-beta inhibitor (Compound A), a proteasome inhibitor (PS-519), or vehicle was administered at left anterior descending artery release or 2 hours afterward. Infarct size was analyzed 24 hours later. Pressure-volume loops were performed at 72 hours. Serum and left ventricular tissue were collected 1 hour after injury to examine protein expression by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot.
Inhibitory kappa B kinase-beta and proteasome inhibition significantly attenuated infarct size and preserved ejection fraction compared with the vehicle groups. When delivered even 2 hours after reperfusion, Compound A, but not PS-519, still decreased infarct size in mice. Finally, when delivered at reperfusion, successful inhibition of phosphorylated-p65 and decreased interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels occurred in mice given the inhibitory kappa B kinase-beta inhibitor, but not in mice with proteasome inhibition.
Although inhibitory kappa B kinase-beta and proteasome inhibition at reperfusion attenuated infarct size after acute ischemia/reperfusion, only inhibitory kappa B kinase-beta inhibition provided cardioprotection through specific suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB signaling. This feature of highly targeted nuclear factor-kappaB inhibition might account for its delayed protective effects, providing a clinically relevant option for treating myocardial ischemia/reperfusion associated with unknown periods of ischemia and reperfusion as seen in cardiac surgery and acute coronary syndromes.
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ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in protein degradation and regulates a variety of critical cellular processes. During recent years, the cardiac UPS has become increasingly recognized as a key regulator of cardiac function under both physiological and pathological conditions. Numerous studies have demonstrated that altered UPS function is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac disease including myocardial ischaemia or infarction. The expression and activity of the E3 ubiquitin ligases, which confer substrate specificity in the UPS pathway, affect the apoptosis and severity of disease in myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion. Although impaired proteasome function is commonly associated with myocardial ischaemic injury, recent evidence also supports a cardioprotective role for proteasome inhibitors in myocardial ischaemia. We will review these studies and data, discuss controversies regarding the UPS alterations and use of proteasome inhibitors in myocardial ischaemia, and attempt to identify strategies that may enhance their clinical application.Cardiovascular Research 10/2009; 85(2):312-20. DOI:10.1093/cvr/cvp309 · 5.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by a selective loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Although current therapy can control symptoms of this disorder, there is no effective therapy available to halt its progression. Recently, neuroinflammation has been recognized as an important contributor to the pathogenesis of PD, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a key role in regulating neuroinflammation. Hence, the modulation of NF-kappaB pathway may have therapeutic potential for PD. Activation of NF-kappaB depends on the phosphorylation of its inhibitor, IkappaB, by the specific IkappaB kinase (IKK) subunit IKK-beta. Compound A (7-[2-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-6-hydroxyphenyl]-5-[(3S)-3-piperidinyl]-1, 4-dihydro-2H-pyrido[2,3-d][1,3]oxazin-2-one hydrochloride), a potent and selective inhibitor of IKK-beta, has recently been reported to provide cardioprotection through specific suppression of NF-kappaB signaling. The present study, for the first time, elucidates neuroprotective effects of compound A. Daily subcutaneous injection of compound A (1 mg/kg) for 7 days inhibited the activation of microglia induced by nigral stereotaxic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and significantly attenuated LPS-induced loss of DA neurons in the SN. In vitro mechanistic studies revealed that neuroprotective effects of compound A were mediated by 1) suppressing the activity of microglial NADPH oxidase and decreasing the production of reactive oxygen species, and 2) inhibiting NF-kappaB-mediated gene transcription of various proinflammatory mediators in microglia via IKK-beta suppression. These findings indicate that compound A afforded potent neuroprotection against LPS-induced neurodegeneration through selective inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and may be of potential benefit in the treatment of PD.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 02/2010; 333(3):822-33. DOI:10.1124/jpet.110.165829 · 3.86 Impact Factor