Article

Cleft closure and undersizing annuloplasty improve mitral repair in atrioventricular canal defects.

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0535, USA.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery (Impact Factor: 3.41). 12/2008; 136(5):1243-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2008.05.043
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Reoperation rates to correct left atrioventricular valve regurgitation after primary repair of atrioventricular canal defects remain relatively high. The causes of valvular regurgitation are likely multifactorial, and simple cleft closure is often insufficient to prevent recurrence.
To elucidate the mechanisms leading to regurgitation, we conducted hemodynamic studies using isolated native mitral valves. Anatomy of these valves was altered to mimic atrioventricular canal type valves and studied under pediatric hemodynamic conditions. The impact of subvalvular geometry, cleft closure, annular dilatation, and annular undersizing on regurgitation were investigated.
Papillary muscle position did not have a significant effect on regurgitation. Cleft closure had a significant impact on valvular competence, with reduction in regurgitation volume with increased cleft closure. Regurgitation volume decreased from 12.5 +/- 2.4 mL/beat for an open cleft to 4.9 +/- 1.9 mL/beat for a partially closed cleft and to 1.4 +/- 1.6 mL/beat when the cleft was completely closed. Annular dilatation had a significant impact on regurgitation even after cleft closure. A 40% increase in annular size increased regurgitation by 59% for a partially closed cleft and by 84% for a fully closed cleft. Reducing the annular size by 20% from the physiologic level decreased the regurgitation volume by 12% for a fully open cleft and by 58% for the partially closed cleft case.
Annular dilatation after primary repair has a potentially significant role in the recurrence of atrioventricular valve regurgitation. Reducing the annular size and restricting dilatation as an adjunct to cleft closure is a promising surgical approach in such valve anatomies.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
69 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mitral valve disease is quite variable and can occur as an isolated defect or in association with other complex left sided lesions. These lesions are often best described with detailed pre-operative imaging studies to define the valve anatomy and to access associated left heart disease. Depending on the type of mitral valve disease, various surgical repair techniques have led to improved survival in the recent era. We describe lesion specific approach to mitral valve repair and results.
    Annals of Pediatric Cardiology 01/2012; 5(1):13-20.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Partial atrioventricular septal defect (P-AVSD) is a common congenital heart disease. Because of the presence of left and right atrioventricular valve deformities and the shift in the atrioventricular node and cardiac conduction bundle, the surgical repair of P-AVSD is difficult. This study was performed to compare the effects on the coronary sinus septum in the left versus the right atrium during surgical treatment for P-AVSD and report our experiences regarding the application of on-pump beating heart surgery under mild hypothermia for patients with P-AVSD.Materials and Methods: The effects of on-pump beating heart surgery were analyzed retrospectively in 87 P-AVSD patients. Of the 87 total patients, 84 with anterior mitral leaflet cleft underwent valvuloplasty and 3 underwent mitral valve replacement. Seventy-seven patients underwent tricuspid valve annuloplasty, 2 underwent tricuspid valve replacement, and 1 underwent left superior vena cava ligation, and 3 patients with atrial fibrillation were treated with radiofrequency ablation. Patients with an ostium primum atrial septal defect underwent autologous pericardial modified Kirklin repair. Of these, 46 patients had their coronary sinus septum separated into the left atrium and 41 had their coronary sinus retained in the right atrium. Fingertip oxygen saturation was compared between patients in whom the coronary sinus was separated to the left atrium and those in whom the coronary sinus was retained in the right atrium.Results: There was 1 postoperative early death (1.15%) due to respiratory failure, and 1 patient had a III degree atrioventricular block (1.15%) and underwent implantation of a permanent pacemaker. The fingertip oxygen saturation levels of the left atrium group were 96.81 ± 3.17 preoperatively, 95.37 ± 4.62 at 7 days postoperatively, and 94.53 ± 4.95 at 3 months postoperatively. Those of the right atrium group were 98.53 ± 2.84 preoperatively, 97.19 ± 3.57 at 7 days postoperatively, and 96.89 ± 4.19 at 3 months postoperatively. During the follow-up period, which ranged from 3 months to 7 years, the cardiac function was adequately restored.Conclusions: On-pump beating heart surgery under mild hypothermia is a safe and feasible method. The retention of the coronary sinus in the right atrium might maintain oxygen saturation.
    Heart Surgery Forum 10/2013; 16(5):E257-63. · 0.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract  Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the outcomes of patients undergoing complete atrioventricular septal defect (CAVSD) repair with particular attention to age at surgery, surgical era, and technique. Methods: One hundred and forty-seven patients undergoing CAVSD repair between November 2002 and February 2012 were grouped according to surgical era and technique. Group I (age: 9.4 ± 5.0 months; weight: 6.8 ± 1.7 kg) consisted of 45 patients, operated before August 2006, and was divided into subgroup Ia (31 patients; two-patch repair) and subgroup Ib (14 patients; modified single-patch repair). One hundred and two patients operated after August 2006 were included in Group II (age: 5.2 ± 3.1 months; weight: 4.9 ± 2.6 kg), and was divided into subgroup IIa (59 patients; two-patch repair) and subgroup IIb (43 patients; modified single-patch repair). Groups were compared with regard to perioperative variables and postoperative data. Results: There were 19 early and five late deaths. Overall mortality was significantly higher in Group I, compared to Group II (p < 0.01). Comparison of Groups Ia to Ib and IIa to IIb revealed no statistically significant difference in mortality or morbidity. Age >8 months and preoperative common atrioventricular valve (CAVV) regurgitation ≥ moderate were significant risk factors for mortality and morbidity. After 40.8 ± 24.4 months, 99 (80.4%) of 123 (83.7%) survivors were asymptomatic without any medication, and 24 (19.5%) have mild symptoms. Conclusion: Our current results indicate that younger patient age and better preoperative CAVV functions were the main factors for a favorable outcome after surgical correction of CAVSD; and outcomes did not differ by the surgical technique. (J Card Surg 2012;27:745-753).
    Journal of Cardiac Surgery 11/2012; 27(6):745-53. · 1.35 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
36 Downloads
Available from
Jun 3, 2014