Inhibition of PAX3 by TGF-beta modulates melanocyte viability.
ABSTRACT The protein encoded by paired-box homeotic gene 3 (PAX3) is a key regulator of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) in the melanocyte lineage. Here, we show that PAX3 expression in skin is directly inhibited by TGF-beta/Smads. UV irradiation represses TGF-beta in keratinocytes, and the repression of TGF-beta/Smads upregulates PAX3 in melanocytes, which is associated with a UV-induced melanogenic response and consequent pigmentation. Furthermore, the TGF-beta-PAX3 signaling pathway interacts with the p53-POMC/MSH-MC1R signaling pathway, and both are crucial in melanogenesis. The activation of p53-POMC/MSH-MC1R signaling is required for the UV-induced melanogenic response because PAX3 functions in synergy with SOX10 in a cAMP-response element (CRE)-dependent manner to regulate the transcription of Mitf. This study will provide a rich foundation for further research on skin cancer prevention by enabling us to identify targeted small molecules in the signaling pathways of the UV-induced melanogenic response that are highly likely to induce naturally protective pigmentation.
- SourceAvailable from: nature.com[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We used type I collagen gel cultures to compare the growth requirements of melanocytes and dermal nevus cells. Melanocytes but not nevus cells undergo apoptosis in collagen unless supplied with growth stimulators such as fibroblast growth factor 2. To characterize the mechanism of melanocyte apoptosis in collagen, we tested the effects of transforming growth factor beta1, known to be functionally active in the skin. When picomolar amounts of transforming growth factor beta1 were added to normal melanocytes grown in type I collagen gel, their apoptosis was dramatically accelerated. In contrast, the apoptotic rate of nevus cells and melanoma cells grown under similar conditions was not affected by transforming growth factor beta1. The increased apoptosis of normal melanocytes was effectively counteracted by addition of either neutralizing transforming growth factor beta1 antibodies or fibroblast growth factor 2 to the collagen gel. Interestingly, the background apoptosis of normal melanocytes was also inhibited by transforming growth factor beta1 antibodies. By Western blotting we detected transforming growth factor beta-like immunoreactivity in melanocyte, nevus cell, and melanoma cell lysates. A sensitive bioassay confirmed that their medium contained considerable amounts of heat-activatable growth inhibitory activity that could partly be neutralized by transforming growth factor beta1 antibodies. It is evident that apoptosis of melanocytes grown in type I collagen gel can be mediated by both endogenous and exogenous transforming growth factor beta. We suggest that the balance between inhibitory growth factors such as transforming growth factor beta and stimulatory growth factors like fibroblast growth factor 2 has the potential to regulate the growth, localization, and survival of normal melanocytes also in vivo. The resistance of nevus cells to transforming-growth-factor-beta-mediated apoptosis may facilitate their ability to grow in the dermal compartment of the skin.Journal of Investigative Dermatology 09/2000; 115(2):286-91. · 6.19 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The paired-box (PAX) genes encode a family of nine well-characterized paired-box transcription factors, with important roles in development and disease. Although PAX genes are primarily expressed in the embryo, constitutive expression promotes tissue hyperplasia. Rare tumor-specific mutations of PAX genes implicate an oncogenic role, and persistent PAX expression characterizes several tumors. Yet, a cancer-wide analysis of PAX gene expression to investigate a general role for PAX genes has not been performed. We analysed the pattern and requirement for PAX gene expression in a panel of common cancer cell lines. Very frequent PAX gene expression was identified in tumor cell lines, including lymphoma, breast, ovarian, lung, and colon cancer. In addition, the PAX2 gene was frequently expressed in a panel of 406 common primary tumor tissues. Apoptosis was rapidly induced in ovarian and bladder cancer cell lines following RNA interference to silence PAX2 expression, despite concomitant TP53 and/or HRAS mutations. These data suggest that PAX genes are frequently expressed in cancer, and that endogenous PAX gene expression is required for the growth and survival of cancer cells.Oncogene 10/2003; 22(39):7989-97. · 7.36 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is associated with neural crest-derived melanocyte deficiency caused by mutations in either one of three transcription factors: MITF, PAX3, and SOX10. However, the hierarchical relationship of these transcription factors is largely unknown. We show that SOX10 is capable of transactivating the MITF promoter 100-fold, and that this transactivation is further stimulated by PAX3. Promoter deletion and mutational analyses indicate that SOX10 can activate MITF expression through binding to a region that is evolutionarily conserved between the mouse and human MITF promoters. A SOX10 mutant that models C-terminal truncations in WS can reduce wild-type SOX10 induction of MITF, suggesting these mutations may act in a dominant-negative fashion. Our data support a model in which the hypopigmentation in WS, of which these factors have been implicated, results from a disruption in function of the central melanocyte transcription factor MITF.Human Genetics 01/2000; 107(1):1-6. · 4.63 Impact Factor