Conjugal mobilization of the mega element carrying mef(E) from Streptococcus salivarius to Streptococcus pneumoniae.
ABSTRACT We report the isolation and characterization of an unusual strain of Streptococcus salivarius, 3C30, displaying both the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B and the tetracycline resistance phenotypes. It harbours the mef(E), erm(B), and tet(M) genes carried by different genetic elements. The genetic element carrying mef(E), named mega, was investigated by long PCR and sequencing, while the presence of the Tn3872-like element, carrying tet(M) and erm(B), was demonstrated by sequencing of both the int-xis-Tn and the fragment between the two resistance genes. In strain 3C30 the mega element is 5388 bp in size and its nucleotide sequence is identical to that of the element described previously in S. salivarius, with the exception of a 912 bp deletion at the left end. The composite Tn3872-like element appeared to be nonconjugative while the mega element was transferred by conjugation to Streptococcus pneumoniae. It was, however, impossible to transfer it again from these transconjugants to other strains. In addition, only in the 3C30 strain did mega form circular structures, as identified by real-time PCR. In conclusion, we found a clinical strain of S. salivarius carrying both mega and Tn3872-like genetic elements. Mega is transferable by conjugation to S. pneumoniae but it is not transferable again from the transconjugants, suggesting a possible mobilization by recombinases of the coresident Tn3872-like transposon.
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ABSTRACT: We describe here the isolation of 8 beta-lactamase-producing multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates in 2010. All strains showed diverse pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles, all belonging to the same clonal complex, CC17. By PCR and hybridization experiments, the entire blaZ-blaI-blaR1 operon was found. The beta-lactamase activity was demonstrated at a high inoculum and in the presence of methicillin after overnight incubation.Journal of clinical microbiology 11/2011; 50(1):169-72. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In Streptococcus pyogenes, efflux-mediated erythromycin resistance is associated with the mef gene, represented mostly by mef(A), although a small portion of strains carry different mef subclasses. We characterized the composite genetic elements, including mef subclasses other than mef(A), associated with other resistance genes in S. pyogenes isolates. Determination of the genetic elements was performed by PCR mapping. The strains carrying mosaic mef(A/E), in which the 5' region was identical to mef(A) and the 3' region was identical to mef(E), also carried tet(O). The two genes were found enclosed in an element similar to S. pyogenes prophage Φm46.1, designated the Φm46.1-like element. In S. pyogenes strains carrying mef(E) and tet(M), mef(E) was included in a typical mega element, and in some strains, it was physically associated with tet(M) in the composite element Tn2009. S. pyogenes strains carrying mef(I) also carried catQ; the two genes were linked in a fragment representing a portion of the 5216IQ complex of Streptococcus pneumoniae, designated the defective IQ element. In the only isolate carrying a novel mef gene, this was associated with catQ and tet(M) in a genetic element similar to the 5216IQ complex of S. pneumoniae (5216IQ-like complex), suggesting that the novel mef is in fact a variant of mef(I). This study demonstrates that the composite elements containing mef are shared between S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae and suggests that it is important to distinguish the mef subclass on the basis of the genetic element containing it.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 07/2011; 55(7):3226-30. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of bacteria as probiotics is in continuous development, thanks to their capacity to maintain or restore a host's natural microbiome by interference with and/or inhibition of other microorganisms mediated by antimicrobial peptide production such as bacteriocins. In the oral cavity, Streptococcus salivarius, a non-pathogenic and predominant oral species, is one of the major bacteriocin producers that is able to coexist in this environment and reduce the frequency of colonization of the main pathogens involved in upper respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to screen oral bacteria colonizing healthy children for their use as potential oral probiotics. Eighty-one α-hemolytic streptococci isolated from nasal and/or pharyngeal swabs of 31 healthy children aged between two and twelve years were isolated. Among them, 13 α-hemolytic streptococci were selected for their bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity against potential pathogens. These strains were tested for bacteriocin production and assayed for their capacity to adhere to HEp-2 cell lines. Our data showed that 13 bacteriocin producer strains were able to inhibit different gram-positive pathogens. Among them one strain, S. salivarius 24SMB, deposited as DSM 23307, was selected as a potential oral probiotic, thanks to its safety assessment, ability to inhibit Streptococcus pneumoniae and the absence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes.FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology 01/2012; 65(1):23-31. · 2.68 Impact Factor