Macroporous scaffolds associated with cells to construct a hybrid biomaterial for bone tissue engineering
ABSTRACT Bone tissue has the ability to heal without a scar and to remodel, which promotes three basic functions: locomotion, protection of internal organs and mineral homeostasis. Although bone regeneration is highly efficient, some clinical situations - such as large bone defects - require specific treatments in order to promote bone healing. Allogenic or autologous bone grafts have been used in these procedures with limited success and, based on this, bone tissue-engineering approaches have been investigated extensively. Tissue engineering has been defined as the application of principles and techniques of the life sciences and engineering to the design, modification and growth of living tissues using biomaterials, cells and growth factors, alone or in combination. The association of cells with porous scaffolds to produce 3D hybrid osteogenic constructs is a common subject in bone tissue-engineering research and will be the focus of this review. We will present some aspects of bone biology, the cells and scaffolds used to engineer bone, and techniques to fabricate the hybrid biomaterial.
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- "There are 5 major types of scaffold materials that are currently used: (1) metals (such as titanium, although few metallic scaffolds are used due to the lack of degradability) (Ryan et al.2009; Elliott et al.2012), (2) synthetic organic materials (polymers and copolymers) (Tseng et al.2013; Lakshmanan et al.2013), (3) synthetic inorganic materials (hydroxyapatite) (Wei et al.2013; Schumacher et al.2013), (4) natural organic materials (collagen, fibrin, and hyaluronic acid) (Campbell et al.2011; Shoae-Hassani et al.2013), and (5) natural inorganic material (coralline hydroxyapatite) (Rosa et al.2008; Mygind et al.2007). Hanjaya-Putra and Gerecht have provided a detailed review of the different characteristics of each kind of scaffold. "
ABSTRACT: Stem cells have emerged as important players in the generation and maintenance of many tissues. However, the accurate in vitro simulation of the native stem cell niche remains difficult due at least in part to the lack of a comprehensive definition of the critical factors of the stem cell niche based on in vivo models. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems have allowed the development of useful models for investigating stem cell physiology particularly with respect to their ability to sense and generate mechanical force in response to their surrounding environment. We review the use of 3D culture systems for stem cell culture and discuss the relationship between stem cells and 3D growth matrices including the roles of the extracellular matrix, scaffolds, soluble factors, cell-cell interactions and shear stress effects within this environment. We also discuss the potential for novel methods that mimic the native stem cell niche in vitro as well as the current associated challenges.SpringerPlus 02/2014; 3(1):80. DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-3-80
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- "Bone tissue engineering has been defined as the application of principles and techniques of the life sciences and the engineering that relays on the combination of cells, biomaterials and growth factors to repair bone tissue (Rosa et al, 2008). While all these three elements play important roles, the source of cells is recognized as a key factor to engineer bone (Colnot, 2011). "
ABSTRACT: Objectives: Autografts from mandibular symphysis and ramus are often used for bone reconstruction. Based on this, we hypothesized that these sites could be useful cell sources for bone tissue engineering approaches. Thus, our study aimed at evaluating the proliferation and osteoblast phenotype development of cells derived from mandibular symphysis and ramus. Materials and methods: Cells were isolated from bone fragments of four patients by enzymatic digestion and cultured under osteogenic condition for up to 17 days. Cultures were assayed for cell proliferation, gene expression of key bone markers runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), distal-less homeobox 5 (DLX5), SATB homeobox 2 (SATB2), Osterix (OSX), family with sequence similarity 20, member C (FAM20C), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and activity, and extracellular matrix mineralization. Data were compared by two-way ANOVA or t-test for independent samples when appropriate. Results: Cells derived from ramus displayed lower proliferative activity and higher gene expression of Runx2, DLX5, SATB2, OSX, FAM20C, BSP, OPN and OC, ALP protein expression and activity and extracellular matrix mineralization compared with symphysis-derived cells. Conclusion: Symphysis and ramus may be considered as cell sources for bone tissue engineering approaches but due to the higher osteogenic potential, ramus-derived cells are more appealing for constructing cell-based biomaterials.Oral Diseases 04/2013; 20(3). DOI:10.1111/odi.12115 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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- "While the majority of licensed treatments consist of a synthetic material alone, there is a current trend towards the delivery of cells within the material matrix in order to expedite healing (Kretlow et al. 2009). Much of this work has involved the use of sponge-like scaffold materials exhibiting interconnected porosity (Rosa et al. 2008). Although within such structures, the cells are arranged spatially in three dimensions with respect to one another, they still attach to a two dimensional surface and as such do not exhibit a phenotype that would be expected in native tissue. "
ABSTRACT: There has been a consistent increase in the mean life expectancy of the population of the developed world over the past century. Healthy life expectancy, however, has not increased concurrently. As a result we are living a larger proportion of our lives in poor health and there is a growing demand for the replacement of diseased and damaged tissues. While traditionally tissue grafts have functioned well for this purpose, the demand for tissue grafts now exceeds the supply. For this reason, research in regenerative medicine is rapidly expanding to cope with this new demand. There is now a trend towards supplying cells with a material in order to expedite the tissue healing process. Hydrogel encapsulation provides cells with a three dimensional environment similar to that experienced in vivo and therefore may allow the maintenance of normal cellular function in order to produce tissues similar to those found in the body. In this review we discuss biopolymeric gels that have been used for the encapsulation of mammalian cells for tissue engineering applications as well as a brief overview of cell encapsulation for therapeutic protein production. This review focuses on agarose, alginate, collagen, fibrin, hyaluronic acid and gelatin since they are widely used for cell encapsulation. The literature on the regeneration of cartilage, bone, ligament, tendon, skin, blood vessels and neural tissues using these materials has been summarised.Biotechnology Letters 02/2010; 32(6):733-42. DOI:10.1007/s10529-010-0221-0 · 1.59 Impact Factor