Article

Acute sleep deprivation increases portion size and affects food choice in young men

Psychoneuroendocrinology (Impact Factor: 5.59). 01/2013;

ABSTRACT Acute sleep loss increases food intake in adults. However, little is known about the influence of acute sleep loss on portion size choice, and whether this depends on both hunger state and the type of food (snack or meal item) offered to an individual. The aim of the current study was to compare portion size choice after a night of sleep and a period of nocturnal wakefulness (a condition experienced by night-shift workers, e.g. physicians and nurses). Sixteen men (age: 23 ± 0.9 y, BMI: 23.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2) participated in a randomized within-subject design with two conditions, 8-h of sleep and total sleep deprivation (TSD). In the morning following sleep interventions, portion size, comprising meal and snack items, was measured using a computer-based task, in both fasted and sated state. In addition, hunger as well as plasma levels of ghrelin were measured. In the morning after TSD, subjects had increased plasma ghrelin levels (13%, p=0.04), and chose larger portions (14%, p=0.02), irrespective of the type of food, as compared to the sleep condition. Self-reported hunger was also enhanced (p<0.01). Following breakfast, sleep-deprived subjects chose larger portions of snacks (16%, p=0.02), whereas the selection of meal items did not differ between the sleep interventions (6%, p=0.13). Our results suggest that overeating in the morning after sleep loss is driven by both homeostatic and hedonic factors. Further, they show that portion size choice after sleep loss depend on both an individual’s hunger status, and the type of food offered.

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate whether acute sleep deprivation (TSD) leads to decreased cognitive control when food cues are presented during a task requiring active attention, by assessing the ability to cognitively inhibit prepotent responses. Methods: Fourteen males participated in the study on two separate occasions in a randomized, crossover within-subject design: one night of TSD versus normal sleep (8.5 hours). Following each nighttime intervention, hunger ratings and morning fasting plasma glucose concentrations were assessed before performing a go/no-go task. Results: Following TSD, participants made significantly more commission errors when they were presented “no-go” food words in the go/no-go task, as compared with their performance following sleep (+56%; P<0.05). In contrast, response time and omission errors to “go” non-food words did not differ between the conditions. Self-reported hunger after TSD was increased without changes in fasting plasma glucose (fPG). The increase in hunger did not correlate with the TSD-induced commission errors. Conclusions: Our results suggest that TSD impairs cognitive control also in response to food stimuli in healthy young men. Whether such loss of inhibition or impulsiveness is food cue-specific as seen in obesity – thus providing a mechanism through which sleep disturbances may promote obesity development – warrants further investigation.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate whether acute total sleep deprivation (TSD) leads to decreased cognitive control when food cues are presented during a task requiring active attention, by assessing the ability to cognitively inhibit prepotent responses.Methods Fourteen males participated in the study on two separate occasions in a randomized, crossover within-subject design: one night of TSD versus normal sleep (8.5 hours). Following each nighttime intervention, hunger ratings and morning fasting plasma glucose concentrations were assessed before performing a go/no-go task.ResultsFollowing TSD, participants made significantly more commission errors when they were presented “no-go” food words in the go/no-go task, as compared with their performance following sleep (+56%; P<0.05). In contrast, response time and omission errors to “go” non-food words did not differ between the conditions. Self-reported hunger after TSD was increased without changes in fasting plasma glucose. The increase in hunger did not correlate with the TSD-induced commission errors.Conclusions Our results suggest that TSD impairs cognitive control also in response to food stimuli in healthy young men. Whether such loss of inhibition or impulsiveness is food cue-specific as seen in obesity—thus providing a mechanism through which sleep disturbances may promote obesity development—warrants further investigation.
    Obesity 05/2014; · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate if acute sleep deprivation affects food purchasing choices in a mock supermarket. Design and Methods: On the morning after one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or after one night of sleep, fourteen normal-weight men were given a fixed budget (300 SEK - approximately 50 USD). They were instructed to purchase as much as they could out of a possible 40 items, including 20 high-caloric foods (>2 kcal/g) and 20 low-calorie foods (<2 kcal/g). The prices of the high-caloric foods were then varied (75%, 100% (reference price), and 125%) to determine if TSD affects the flexibility of food purchasing. Before the task, participants received a standardized breakfast, thereby minimizing the potential confound produced by hunger. In addition, morning plasma concentrations of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin were measured under fasting conditions. Results: Independent of both type of food offered and price condition, sleep-deprived men purchased significantly more calories (+9%) and grams (+18%) of food than they did after one night of sleep (both P<0.05). Morning plasma ghrelin concentrations were also higher after TSD (P<0.05). However, this increase did not correlate with the effects of TSD on food purchasing. Conclusions: This experiment demonstrates that acute sleep loss alters food purchasing behavior in men.
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