Acute sleep deprivation increases portion size and affects food choice in young men

Psychoneuroendocrinology (Impact Factor: 5.59). 01/2013;

ABSTRACT Acute sleep loss increases food intake in adults. However, little is known about the influence of acute sleep loss on portion size choice, and whether this depends on both hunger state and the type of food (snack or meal item) offered to an individual. The aim of the current study was to compare portion size choice after a night of sleep and a period of nocturnal wakefulness (a condition experienced by night-shift workers, e.g. physicians and nurses). Sixteen men (age: 23 ± 0.9 y, BMI: 23.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2) participated in a randomized within-subject design with two conditions, 8-h of sleep and total sleep deprivation (TSD). In the morning following sleep interventions, portion size, comprising meal and snack items, was measured using a computer-based task, in both fasted and sated state. In addition, hunger as well as plasma levels of ghrelin were measured. In the morning after TSD, subjects had increased plasma ghrelin levels (13%, p=0.04), and chose larger portions (14%, p=0.02), irrespective of the type of food, as compared to the sleep condition. Self-reported hunger was also enhanced (p<0.01). Following breakfast, sleep-deprived subjects chose larger portions of snacks (16%, p=0.02), whereas the selection of meal items did not differ between the sleep interventions (6%, p=0.13). Our results suggest that overeating in the morning after sleep loss is driven by both homeostatic and hedonic factors. Further, they show that portion size choice after sleep loss depend on both an individual’s hunger status, and the type of food offered.

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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a serious and growing health concern worldwide. Watching television (TV) represents a condition during which many habitually eat, irrespective of hunger level. However, as of yet, little is known about how the content of television programs being watched differentially impacts concurrent eating behavior. In this study, eighteen normal-weight female students participated in three counter-balanced experimental conditions, including a ‘Boring’ TV condition (art lecture), an ‘Engaging’ TV condition (Swedish TV comedy series), and a no TV control condition during which participants read (a text on insects living in Sweden). Throughout each condition participants had access to both high-calorie (M&Ms) and low-calorie (grapes) snacks. We found that, relative to the Engaging TV condition, Boring TV encouraged excessive eating (+ 52 % g, P=0.009). Additionally, the Engaging TV condition actually resulted in significantly less concurrent intake relative to the control ‘Text’ condition (- 35 % g, P=0.05). This intake was driven almost entirely by the healthy snack, grapes; however, this interaction did not reach significance (P=0.07). Finally, there was a significant correlation between how bored participants were across all conditions, and their concurrent food intake (beta= 0.317, P=0.02). Intake as measured by kcals was similarly patterned but did not reach significance. These results suggest that, for women, different TV programs elicit different levels of concurrent food intake, and that the degree to which a program is engaging (or alternately, boring) is related to that intake. Additionally, they suggest that emotional content (e.g. boring vs. engaging) may be more associated than modality (e.g. TV vs. text) with concurrent intake.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e100602.. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100602 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To examine the association between short sleep duration and obesity among adolescents (mean age 16 years) transitioning into young adulthood (mean age 21 years) in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 10 076). Study design Self-reported sleep duration was categorized as <6, 6-8, or >8 hours. Obesity status, using measured height and weight, was defined as body mass index >= 95th percentile in adolescence and body mass index >= 30 kg/m(2) in young adulthood. Results Cross-sectionally, short sleep duration was associated with obesity in adolescent males (prevalence ratio 1.8 [95% CI, 1.3-2.4]) but not in females (prevalence ratio 1.0 [95% CI, 0.7-1.4]). In longitudinal analyses, short sleep duration in adolescence was associated with incident obesity in both males and females (risk ratio 1.2 [95% CI, 1.0-1.6]) in young adulthood. No interactions by sex were noted. Conclusions Analyzing the association of sleep duration and obesity longitudinally resolved sex discrepancies observed in earlier cross-sectional analyses. Optimizing sleep duration during adolescence may be an effective intervention to prevent excess weight gain in young adults.
    Journal of Pediatrics 07/2014; 165(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.06.052 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate whether acute total sleep deprivation (TSD) leads to decreased cognitive control when food cues are presented during a task requiring active attention, by assessing the ability to cognitively inhibit prepotent responses.Methods Fourteen males participated in the study on two separate occasions in a randomized, crossover within-subject design: one night of TSD versus normal sleep (8.5 hours). Following each nighttime intervention, hunger ratings and morning fasting plasma glucose concentrations were assessed before performing a go/no-go task.ResultsFollowing TSD, participants made significantly more commission errors when they were presented “no-go” food words in the go/no-go task, as compared with their performance following sleep (+56%; P<0.05). In contrast, response time and omission errors to “go” non-food words did not differ between the conditions. Self-reported hunger after TSD was increased without changes in fasting plasma glucose. The increase in hunger did not correlate with the TSD-induced commission errors.Conclusions Our results suggest that TSD impairs cognitive control also in response to food stimuli in healthy young men. Whether such loss of inhibition or impulsiveness is food cue-specific as seen in obesity—thus providing a mechanism through which sleep disturbances may promote obesity development—warrants further investigation.
    Obesity 08/2014; 22(8). DOI:10.1002/oby.20786 · 4.39 Impact Factor


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Jun 6, 2014