Prostaglandin E2 inhibits BMP signaling and delays chondrocyte maturation

Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research (Impact Factor: 2.99). 06/2009; 27(6):785-92. DOI: 10.1002/jor.20805
Source: PubMed


While cyclooxygenases are important in endochondral bone formation during fracture healing, mechanisms involved in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) regulation of chondrocyte maturation are incompletely understood. The present study was undertaken to determine if PGE2 effects on chondrocyte differentiation are related to modulation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway. In primary murine sternal chondrocytes, PGE2 differentially regulated genes involved in differentiation. PGE2 induced type II collagen and MMP-13, had minimal effects on alkaline phosphatase, and inhibited the expression of the maturational marker, type X collagen. In BMP-2-treated cultures, PGE2 blocked the induction of type X collagen. All four EP receptors were expressed in chondrocytes and tended to be inhibited by BMP-2 treatment. RCJ3.1C5.18 chondrocytes transfected with the protein kinase A (PKA) responsive reporter, CRE-luciferase, showed luciferase induction following exposure to PGE2, consistent with activation of PKA signaling and the presence of the EP2 and EP4 receptors. Both PGE2 and the PKA agonist, dibutyryl cAMP, blocked the induction of the BMP-responsive reporter, 12XSBE, by BMP-2 in RCJ3.1C5.18 chondrocytes. In contrast, PGE2 increased the ability of TGF-beta to activate the TGF-beta-responsive reporter, 4XSBE. Finally, PGE2 down-regulated BMP-mediated phosphorylation of Smads 1, 5, and 8 in RCJ3.1C5.18 cells and in primary murine sternal chondrocytes. Altogether, the findings show that PGE2 regulates chondrocyte maturation in part by targeting BMP/Smad signaling and suggest an important role for PGE2 in endochondral bone formation.

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Available from: Tian-Fang Li,
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    • "Because of the diverse cell types that participate in cartilage formation during fracture healing, it is likely that these different types of cells use different signaling mechanisms when undergoing chondrogenic differentiation. It is known that TGFß, BMP, PTH, as well as Wnt signaling are all activated during fracture healing, and downstream molecules such as Smad, prostaglandin, Cox-2 and ß-catenin regulate this process [58], [59], [75], [76], [77], [78], [79], [80], [81], [82], [83], [84]. Our work demonstrates that transcription factors Pax3, Nkx3.2 and Sox9 regulate chondrogenic differentiation of muscle progenitor cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Muscle satellite cells make up a stem cell population that is capable of differentiating into myocytes and contributing to muscle regeneration upon injury. In this work we investigate the mechanism by which these muscle progenitor cells adopt an alternative cell fate, the cartilage fate. We show that chick muscle satellite cells that normally would undergo myogenesis can be converted to express cartilage matrix proteins in vitro when cultured in chondrogenic medium containing TGFß3 or BMP2. In the meantime, the myogenic program is repressed, suggesting that muscle satellite cells have undergone chondrogenic differentiation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of the myogenic factor Pax3 prevents chondrogenesis in these cells, while chondrogenic factors Nkx3.2 and Sox9 act downstream of TGFß or BMP2 to promote this cell fate transition. We found that Nkx3.2 and Sox9 repress the activity of the Pax3 promoter and that Nkx3.2 acts as a transcriptional repressor in this process. Importantly, a reverse function mutant of Nkx3.2 blocks the ability of Sox9 to both inhibit myogenesis and induce chondrogenesis, suggesting that Nkx3.2 is required for Sox9 to promote chondrogenic differentiation in satellite cells. Finally, we found that in an in vivo mouse model of fracture healing where muscle progenitor cells were lineage-traced, Nkx3.2 and Sox9 are significantly upregulated while Pax3 is significantly downregulated in the muscle progenitor cells that give rise to chondrocytes during fracture repair. Thus our in vitro and in vivo analyses suggest that the balance of Pax3, Nkx3.2 and Sox9 may act as a molecular switch during the chondrogenic differentiation of muscle progenitor cells, which may be important for fracture healing.
    PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e39642. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039642 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "In agreement, we showed that production of MMP-13 in articular chondrocytes was reduced when treated with an EP2 agonist in vivo (Figure 7) and in vitro (Figure 8). Controversially others studies show that PGE2 plays a crucial role in the induction of MMP-13 and MMP-3 in chondrocytes in response to IL-1β in microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-deficient mice [35] or that of PGE2 inhibits chondrocyte maturation [36]. In the current study model, EP2 signaling was shown to inhibit the expression of MMP-13 mRNA, suggesting that EP2 signaling protects the articular cartilage from degeneration. "
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    ABSTRACT: Skeletogenesis and bone fracture healing involve endochondral ossification, a process during which cartilaginous primordia are gradually replaced by bone tissue. In line with a role for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the endochondral ossification process, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were reported to negatively affect bone fracture healing due to impaired osteogenesis. However, a role for COX-2 activity in the chondrogenic phase of endochondral ossification has not been addressed before. We show that COX-2 activity fulfils an important regulatory function in chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation. Our data reveal essential cross-talk between COX-2 and bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) during chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation. BMP-2 mediated chondrocyte hypertrophy is associated with increased COX-2 expression and pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 activity by NSAIDs (e.g., Celecoxib) decreases hypertrophic differentiation in various chondrogenic models in vitro and in vivo, while leaving early chondrogenic development unaltered. Our findings demonstrate that COX-2 activity is a novel factor partaking in chondrocyte hypertrophy in the context of endochondral ossification and these observations provide a novel etiological perspective on the adverse effects of NSAIDs on bone fracture healing and have important implications for the use of NSAIDs during endochondral skeletal development.
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