Are There Racial Disparities in Trauma Care?
ABSTRACT A number of recent studies have demonstrated disparity between racial groups in both outcome and processes of trauma care. These were not controlled for the presence of shock.
We used data from the National Trauma Databank (NTDB) (version 6.0) to evaluate mortality, length of hospital stay, and discharge disposition for patients who suffered gunshot wounds (GSW) or who were drivers in motor vehicle crashes (MVC). Using regression analysis to control for age, gender, first measured systolic blood pressure, geographic region, trauma center verification status, and hospital teaching status, we looked for differences in trauma care outcomes by race as represented in the NTDB.
We included 235,557 MVC victims and 13,378 GSW victims in our analysis. When potential confounding variables were accounted for, there were no differences in mortality based on race in either group, with the exception that Hispanic motor vehicle drivers suffered higher mortality, OR: 1.72 (95% CI: 1.36, 2.19; p<.001). Both Blacks and Hispanics had shorter lengths of stay in linear regression models (p<.001 in both cases) than whites. Blacks and Hispanics were less likely to be discharged home when compared to white patients (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.80-0.86 for Blacks, and OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.50-0.56 for Hispanics). Shock, as reflected by first systolic blood pressure reported, and to a lesser degree, anatomic injury, as measured by Injury Severity Score (ICISS), were much more powerful predictors of outcome than race in all analyses.
We found no mortality differences based on race for GSW. Hispanics have a higher mortality rate for MVC. For both injury types, Blacks and Hispanics had shorter hospital stays and a greater likelihood of transfer to post-acute care when compared to white patients. Hypotension on admission has a much more significant impact on outcome than race and ethnicity.
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ABSTRACT: Pedestrian trauma is the most lethal blunt trauma mechanism, and the rate of mortality in African Americans and Hispanics is twice that compared with whites. Whether insurance status and differential survival contribute to this disparity is unknown. This study is a review of vehicle-struck pedestrians in the National Trauma Data Bank, v7.0. Patients <16 years and > or =65 years, as well as patients with Injury Severity Score (ISS) <9, were excluded. Patients were categorized as white, African American, or Hispanic, and as privately insured, government insured, or uninsured. With white and privately insured patients as reference, logistic regression was used to evaluate mortality by race and insurance status after adjusting for patient and injury characteristics. In all, 26,404 patients met inclusion criteria. On logistic regression, African Americans had 22% greater odds of mortality (odds ratio [OR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.41) and Hispanics had 33% greater odds of mortality (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.14-1.54) compared with whites. Uninsured patients had 77% greater odds of mortality (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.52-2.06) compared with privately insured patients. African American and Hispanic race, as well as uninsured status, increase the risk of mortality after pedestrian crashes. Given the greater incidence of pedestrian crashes in minorities, this compounded burden of injury mandates pedestrian trauma prevention efforts in inner cities to decrease health disparities.Surgery 08/2010; 148(2):202-8. DOI:10.1016/j.surg.2010.05.010 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have demonstrated that black patients receive substandard care compared with white patients across healthcare settings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of race on the management (salvage vs. amputation) of traumatic lower extremity open fractures. Data analysis was conducted using the American College of Surgeon's National Trauma Data Bank. Open tibial and fibular (OTFF) and open femoral (OFF) fractures among adults above the age of 18 were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes. Injuries were identified as amputated based on the presence of one of three types of knee amputations. Statistical analysis included logistic regression stratified for sex, age, race, mechanism of injury, severity, and insurance type. From the National Trauma Data Bank, 10,082 OFF and 22,479 OTFF were identified. Amputation rates were 3.1% for OFF and 4.2% for OTFF. With age stratification, the ratio of amputation odds for blacks to amputation odds for whites (i.e., the Racial Odds for Amputation Ratio [ROAR]) demonstrated a significant interaction between black and age in both the OFF (p = 0.028) and OTFF (p = 0.008) groups. In younger patients, a lower ROAR (p = 0.016) favored salvage in blacks, while the ROAR in older patients favored amputation in blacks (p = 0.013). The higher prevalence of penetrating injuries in blacks only accounted for 12.7% of the lower ROAR among younger adults. There exists a racial disparity in the management of lower extremity open fractures. Older blacks have greater odds of amputation that is not explained by mechanism. In contrast, younger blacks have lower odds for amputation that is only partially explained by mechanism of injury.The Journal of trauma 12/2011; 71(6):1732-6. DOI:10.1097/TA.0b013e31823c5f94 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Electrical injuries usually represent a small proportion of a burn center's admissions. Although burn size may be small, internal tissue damage is sometimes extensive. This study reviews a single institution's experience with electrical injuries and compares it to the multi-institutional data of the National Burn Repository (NBR). The 2009 NBR and the records of a large urban burn center (single institution) were queried for adult electrical injuries over an 8-year period. Data examined included demographics, %TBSA burn, length of stay (LOS), injury circumstance, and disposition. Multiple linear regression models were created to determine factors related to LOS. One hundred ninety-one single-institution patients and 2837 multi-institution patients met the criteria. Both cohorts were mostly white males approximately 30 years of age and injuries where often work-related. Single-institution patients had a mean injury size of 4% TBSA, while multi-institution patients had 7%. The most common exposure source was domestic wiring for single-institution patients and electrical power plants/lines for multi-institution patients. Single-institution data showed that females had a shorter LOS than males (P < .0001). Single-institution data showed that independent risk factors for an increased LOS were infection, amputation, fasciotomy, and being Hispanic. Independent risk factors for multi-institution patients were being Hispanic and large %TBSA burn. There was no difference in mortality, gender, age, LOS, or intensive care unit LOS between the cohorts. In this analysis, there was no statistical difference between outcomes in the single- or multi-institutional groups. However, injuries reported in the NBR were slightly larger. In both cohorts, an increase in LOS was associated with %TBSA, as expected. Interestingly, Hispanic ethnicity correlated with an increased LOS. Future work will be aimed at understanding this correlation to determine whether it is specific to electrical injury or burns in general.Journal of burn care & research: official publication of the American Burn Association 01/2012; 33(5):606-11. DOI:10.1097/BCR.0b013e318241b13d · 1.55 Impact Factor