Are There Racial Disparities in Trauma Care?
ABSTRACT A number of recent studies have demonstrated disparity between racial groups in both outcome and processes of trauma care. These were not controlled for the presence of shock.
We used data from the National Trauma Databank (NTDB) (version 6.0) to evaluate mortality, length of hospital stay, and discharge disposition for patients who suffered gunshot wounds (GSW) or who were drivers in motor vehicle crashes (MVC). Using regression analysis to control for age, gender, first measured systolic blood pressure, geographic region, trauma center verification status, and hospital teaching status, we looked for differences in trauma care outcomes by race as represented in the NTDB.
We included 235,557 MVC victims and 13,378 GSW victims in our analysis. When potential confounding variables were accounted for, there were no differences in mortality based on race in either group, with the exception that Hispanic motor vehicle drivers suffered higher mortality, OR: 1.72 (95% CI: 1.36, 2.19; p<.001). Both Blacks and Hispanics had shorter lengths of stay in linear regression models (p<.001 in both cases) than whites. Blacks and Hispanics were less likely to be discharged home when compared to white patients (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.80-0.86 for Blacks, and OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.50-0.56 for Hispanics). Shock, as reflected by first systolic blood pressure reported, and to a lesser degree, anatomic injury, as measured by Injury Severity Score (ICISS), were much more powerful predictors of outcome than race in all analyses.
We found no mortality differences based on race for GSW. Hispanics have a higher mortality rate for MVC. For both injury types, Blacks and Hispanics had shorter hospital stays and a greater likelihood of transfer to post-acute care when compared to white patients. Hypotension on admission has a much more significant impact on outcome than race and ethnicity.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Predictors of complications and mortality after spine trauma are underexplored. At present, no study exists capable of predicting the impact of demographic factors, injury-specific predictors, race, ethnicity, and insurance status on morbidity and mortality after spine trauma. PURPOSE: This study endeavored to describe the impact of patient demographics, comorbidities, injury-specific factors, race/ethnicity, and insurance status on outcomes after spinal trauma using the National Sample Program (NSP) of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). STUDY DESIGN: The weighted sample of 75,351 incidents of spine trauma in the NTDB was used to develop a predictive model for important factors associated with mortality, postinjury complications, length of hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) days, and time on a ventilator. PATIENT SAMPLE: A weighted sample of 75,351 incidents of spine trauma as contained in the NTDB. OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality, postinjury complications, length of hospital stay, ICU days, and time on a ventilator as reported in the NTDB. METHODS: The 2008 NSP of the NTDB was queried to identify patients sustaining spine trauma. Patient demographics, race/ethnicity, insurance status, comorbidities, injury-specific factors, and outcomes were recorded, and a national estimate model was derived. Unadjusted differences in baseline characteristics between racial/ethnic groups and insurance status were evaluated using the t test for continuous variables and Wald chi-square analysis for categorical variables with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Weighted logistic regression was performed for categorical variables (mortality and risk of one or more complications), and weighted multiple linear regression analysis was used for continuous variables (length of hospital stay, ICU days, and ventilator time). Initial determinations were checked against a sensitivity analysis using imputed data. RESULTS: The weighted sample contained 75,351 incidents of spine trauma. The average age was 45.8 years. Sixty-four percent of the population was male, 9% was black/African American, 38% possessed private/commercial insurance, and 12.5% lacked insurance. The mortality rate was 6% and 16% sustained complications. Increased age, male gender, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and blood pressure at presentation were significant predictors of mortality, whereas age, male gender, other mechanism of injury, ISS, and blood pressure at presentation influenced the risk of one or more complications. Nonwhite and black/African American race increased risk of mortality, and lack of insurance increased mortality and decreased the number of hospital days, ICU days, and ventilator time. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to postulate predictors of morbidity and mortality after spinal trauma in a national model. Race/ethnicity and insurance status appear to be associated with greater risk of mortality after spine trauma.The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society 04/2013; 13(12). DOI:10.1016/j.spinee.2013.03.024 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Post-acute inpatient rehabilitation services are associated with improved functional outcomes among individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We sought to investigate racial and insurance-based disparities in access to rehabilitation. Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2005-2010 were analyzed using standard descriptive methods and multivariable logistic regression to assess race- and insurance-based differences in access to inpatient rehabilitation after TBI controlling for patient- and hospital-level variables. Patients with moderate to severe TBI aged 18-64 years with complete data on race and insurance status discharged alive from inpatient care were eligible for study. Among 307,675 TBI survivors meeting study criteria and potentially eligible for discharge to rehabilitation, 66% were white, 12% black, 15% Hispanic, 2% Asian and 5% other ethnic minorities. Most whites (70%), Asians (70%), blacks (59%), and many Hispanics (49%) had insurance. Compared with insured whites, insured blacks had reduced odds of discharge to rehabilitation (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.75-0.95). Also, insured Hispanics (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.44-0.60) and insured Asians (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.39-0.73) were less likely to be discharged to rehabilitation than insured whites. Compared with insured whites, uninsured whites (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.51-0.63), uninsured blacks (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.26-0.42), uninsured Hispanics (OR 0.27; 95% CI 0.22-0.33), and uninsured Asians (OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.22-0.73) were less likely to be discharged to rehabilitation. Race and insurance are strong predictors of discharge to rehabilitation among adult TBI survivors in the US. Efforts are needed to understand and eliminate disparities in access to rehabilitation after TBI.Journal of neurotrauma 08/2013; DOI:10.1089/neu.2013.3091 · 4.25 Impact Factor
05/2013; 74(5):1195-1205. DOI:10.1097/TA.0b013e31828c331d