An overview of pediatric dysphagia.
ABSTRACT Difficulty swallowing or dysphagia can be present in children and adults alike. Pediatric dysphagias have long been recognized in the literature. Certain groups of infants with specific developmental and/or medical conditions have been identified as being at high risk for developing dysphagia. Still others may present with a swallowing or feeding problem as their primary symptom. Left untreated, these problems in infants and children can lead to failure to thrive, aspiration pneumonias, gastroesophageal reflux, and/or the inability to establish and maintain proper nutrition and hydration. Awareness of the prevalence of pediatric dysphagia in today's population and the signs and symptoms of this condition aids in its treatment. Early detection of dysphagia in infants and children is important to prevent or minimize complications. This article provides a review of symptoms, etiologies, and resources available regarding management of this condition to help the primary care physician and the families of young children and infants in its management.
- SourceAvailable from: Matthew R Hodges[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Herein we compare the effects of perturbations in the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KFN) and the lateral (LPBN) and medial (MPBN) parabrachial nuclei on the coordination of breathing and swallowing. Cannula were chronically implanted in goats through which ibotenic acid (IA) was injected while awake. Swallows in late expiration (E) always reset while swallows in early inspiration (I) never reset the respiratory rhythm. Before cannula implantation, all other E and I swallows did not reset the respiratory rhythm, and had small effects on E and I duration and tidal volume (VT). However, after cannula implantation in the MPBN and KFN, E and I swallows reset the respiratory rhythm and increased the effects on I and E duration and VT. Subsequent injection of IA into the KFN eliminated the respiratory phase resetting of swallows but exacerbated the effects on I and E duration and VT. We conclude that the KFN and to a lesser extent the MPBN contribute to coordination of breathing and swallowing.Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 06/2013; 189(1). DOI:10.1016/j.resp.2013.06.003
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this retrospective study was to gain insight into the contribution of the dorsolateral pons to the coordination of swallowing and breathing in awake goats. In 4 goats, cannulas were chronically implanted bilaterally through the lateral (LPBN) and medial (MPBN) parabrachial nuclei just dorsal to the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KFN). After >2weeks recovery from this surgery, the goats were studied for 5½h on a control day, and on separate days after receiving 1 and 10μl injections of ibotenic acid (IA) separated by 1week. The frequency of swallows did not change during the control and 1μl IA studies, but after injection of 10μl IA, there was a transient 65% increase in frequency of swallows (P<0.05). Under control conditions swallows occurred throughout the respiratory cycle, where late-E swallows accounted for 67.6% of swallows. The distribution of swallow occurrence throughout the respiratory cycle was unaffected by IA injections. Consistent with the concept that swallowing is dominant over breathing, we found that swallows increased inspiratory (T(I)) and expiratory (T(E)) time and decreased tidal volume (V(T)) of the breath of the swallow (n) and/or the subsequent (n+1) breath. Injections of 10μl IA attenuated the normal increases in T(I) and T(E) and further attenuated V(T) of the n breath. Additionally, E and I swallows reset respiratory rhythm, but injection of 1 or 10μl IA progressively attenuated this resetting, suggesting a decreased dominance over respiratory motor output with increasing IA injections. Post mortem histological analysis revealed about 50% fewer (P<0.05) neurons remained in the KFN, LPBN, and MPBN in lesioned compared to control goats. We conclude that dorsolateral pontine nuclei have a modulatory role in a hypothesized holarchical neural network regulating swallowing and breathing particularly contributing to the normal dominance of swallowing over breathing in both rhythm and motor pattern generation.Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 02/2011; 175(2):272-82. DOI:10.1016/j.resp.2010.12.002
Conference Paper: Radiation of short pulse signals from arrays of tapered slot antennas[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The paper considers pulse radiation by 2D arrays and by two orthogonal 2D arrays made of tapered slot antennas. We show the possibility of 2D beam scanning by providing a special time delay for the excitation of the radiating elements, as well as control of polarization of the radiated signal together with the shape of the radiation pattern. The influence of array elements not being equidistant is studied.Antenna Theory and Techniques, 2003. 4th International Conference on; 10/2003