Energy Intake from Beverages Is Increasing among Mexican Adolescents and Adults

Nutrition and Health Research Center, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 01/2009; 138(12):2454-61. DOI: 10.3945/jn.108.092163
Source: PubMed


Little is understood about the patterns and trends in adolescent and adult beverage intake in Mexico or most other countries. Here, we used nationally representative dietary intake, income, and food expenditure surveys, which included 416 adolescents (aged 12-18 y) and 2180 adults (aged >or=19 y) from the 1999 Mexican Nutrition Survey and 7464 adolescents and 21,113 adults from the 2006 Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey. We measured the volume and energy per day contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects. In 2006, Mexican adolescents and adults obtained 20.1 and 22.3%, respectively, of their energy intake from energy-containing beverages. Whole milk, carbonated and noncarbonated sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations added, and alcohol represented the 4 major categories of beverage intake. The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in the intake of energy-containing beverages among adolescents and adults between 1999 and 2006. Income elasticities showed a high likelihood that intakes will increase as Mexican incomes continue to rise. Whereas the own-price elasticities for whole milk and sodas were both modest, intakes of these were increasing and higher than those for all other food groups. Energy intake trends and current levels of beverage intakes in Mexico are the highest recorded in a nationally representative survey and present major challenges for public health authorities.

Download full-text


Available from: Shu Wen Ng, Jan 15, 2014
1 Follower
76 Reads
  • Source
    • "Mexican food markets are continuously invaded by artificial beverages that have little or no significant nutritional value. In addition, many of these products are known to contribute to obesity and diabetes, among others diseases, which are detrimental to Mexican families (Barquera et al. 2008; Astudillo 2014). As an alternative to commercial beverages, many Mexicans in different cities and communities continue to drink traditional fermented beverages. "
  • Source
    • "Consumption of fruits and vegetables fell sharply (-29%), as the consumption of cereals and tortilla (divided by 2), while consumption of refined carbohydrates has increased (+ 6%) and consumption of sodas increased sharply (+ 37%) [19] [20]. And in India, almost 85% of the food consumed are processed (cereal flour, bread, polished rice, and fermented milk) [21]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While gluten and wheat must be absolutely avoided in coeliac disease and allergy, respectively, nutritional recommendations are largely more confused about non-coeliac wheat/gluten sensitivity (NCWGS). Today, some even recommend avoiding all cereal-based foods. In this paper, the increased NCWGS prevalence is hypothesized to parallel the use of more and more drastic processes applied to the original wheat grain. First, a parallel between gluten-related disorders and wheat processing and consumption evolution is briefly proposed. Notably, increased use of exogenous vital gluten is considered. Drastic processing in wheat technology are mainly grain fractionation and refining followed by recombination and salt, sugars and fats addition, being able to render ultra-processed cereal-based foods more prone to trigger chronic low-grade inflammation. Concerning bread, intensive kneading and the choice of wheat varieties with high baking quality may have rendered gluten less digestible, moving digestion from pancreatic to intestinal proteases. The hypothesis of a gluten resistant fraction reaching colon and interacting with microflora is also considered in relation with increased inflammation. Besides, wheat flour refining removes fibre co-passenger which have potential anti-inflammatory property able to protect digestive epithelium. Finally, some research tracks are proposed, notably the comparison of NCWGS prevalence in populations consuming ultra- versus minimally-processed cereal-based foods.
    Medical Hypotheses 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2015.09.007 · 1.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Concurrently, we measured vitamin D playing critical roles in insulin metabolism and cognitive responses. Finally, in keeping with the fact Mexico City children are at high risk of obesity, we wanted to define their profile of food reward hormones , an issue of pressing importance given their restricted physical activity, unbalanced diets and a record of the world highest per capita intake of commercial carbonated beverages (Barquera et al., 2008; Bonvecchio et al., 2009; Piernas et al., 2014; Duffey et al., 2014). Effective January 2014, a significant increment in the cost of soft drinks by the 8% federal tax, resulted in the substitution of sugar cane by high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by the soft drink industry in Mexico. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Millions of Mexico, US and across the world children are overweight and obese. Exposure to fossil-fuel combustion sources increases the risk for obesity and diabetes, while long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above US EPA standards is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mexico City Metropolitan Area children are chronically exposed to PM2.5 and O3 concentrations above the standards and exhibit systemic, brain and intrathecal inflammation, cognitive deficits, and Alzheimer disease neuropathology. We investigated adipokines, food reward hormones, endothelial dysfunction, vitamin D and apolipoprotein E (APOE) relationships in 80 healthy, normal weight 11.1±3.2 year olds matched by age, gender, BMI and SES, low (n: 26) versus high (n:54) PM2.5 exposures. Mexico City children had higher leptin and endothelin-1 (p<0.01 and p<0.000), and decreases in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP 1), ghrelin, and glucagon (<0.02) versus controls. BMI and leptin relationships were significantly different in low versus high PM2.5 exposed children. Mexico City APOE 4 versus 3 children had higher glucose (p=0.009). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<30ng/mL was documented in 87% of Mexico City children. Leptin is strongly positively associated to PM 2.5 cumulative exposures. Residing in a high PM2.5 and O3 environment is associated with 12h fasting hyperleptinemia, altered appetite-regulating peptides, vitamin D deficiency, and increases in ET-1 in clinically healthy children. These changes could signal the future trajectory of urban children towards the development of insulin resistance, obesity, type II diabetes, premature cardiovascular disease, addiction-like behavior, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Increased efforts should be made to decrease pediatric PM2.5 exposures, to deliver health interventions prior to the development of obesity and to identify and mitigate environmental factors influencing obesity and Alzheimer disease.
    Environmental Research 05/2015; 140:579-592. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2015.05.012 · 4.37 Impact Factor
Show more