Energy Intake from Beverages Is Increasing among Mexican Adolescents and Adults

Nutrition and Health Research Center, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 01/2009; 138(12):2454-61. DOI: 10.3945/jn.108.092163
Source: PubMed


Little is understood about the patterns and trends in adolescent and adult beverage intake in Mexico or most other countries. Here, we used nationally representative dietary intake, income, and food expenditure surveys, which included 416 adolescents (aged 12-18 y) and 2180 adults (aged >or=19 y) from the 1999 Mexican Nutrition Survey and 7464 adolescents and 21,113 adults from the 2006 Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey. We measured the volume and energy per day contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects. In 2006, Mexican adolescents and adults obtained 20.1 and 22.3%, respectively, of their energy intake from energy-containing beverages. Whole milk, carbonated and noncarbonated sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations added, and alcohol represented the 4 major categories of beverage intake. The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in the intake of energy-containing beverages among adolescents and adults between 1999 and 2006. Income elasticities showed a high likelihood that intakes will increase as Mexican incomes continue to rise. Whereas the own-price elasticities for whole milk and sodas were both modest, intakes of these were increasing and higher than those for all other food groups. Energy intake trends and current levels of beverage intakes in Mexico are the highest recorded in a nationally representative survey and present major challenges for public health authorities.

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Available from: Shu Wen Ng, Jan 15, 2014
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    • "In 2011, Mexico had the largest per capita consumption of soft drinks worldwide estimated at 163 l per capita per year (Euromonitor, 2011). The largest consumption of soft drinks is concentrated in the age range between 12 and 39 and is particularly high in the population aged 19 to 29 (Barquera et al., 2008). Recent evidence from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey shows that caloric beverage represent about 18% of total energy among children and adults (Stern et al., 2014), 71% of the consumption of added sugar in Mexico comes from SSB and at least 66% of the population consumes more than 10% of added sugars – above the WHO recommendation – (Sá nchez-Pimienta, 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: A large and growing body of scientific evidence demonstrates that sugar drinks are harmful to health. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Mexico has one of the largest per capita consumption of soft drinks worldwide and high rates of obesity and diabetes. Fiscal approaches such as taxation have been recommended as a public health policy to reduce SSB consumption. We estimated an almost ideal demand system with linear approximation for beverages and high-energy food by simultaneous equations and derived the own and cross price elasticities for soft drinks and for all SSB (soft drinks, fruit juices, fruit drinks, flavored water and energy drinks). Models were stratified by income quintile and marginality index at the municipality level. Price elasticity for soft drinks was -1.06 and -1.16 for SSB, i.e., a 10% price increase was associated with a decrease in quantity consumed of soft drinks by 10.6% and 11.6% for SSB. A price increase in soft drinks is associated with larger quantity consumed of water, milk, snacks and sugar and a decrease in the consumption of other SSB, candies and traditional snacks. The same was found for SSB except that an increase in price of SSB was associated with a decrease in snacks. Higher elasticities were found among households living in rural areas (for soft drinks), in more marginalized areas and with lower income. Implementation of a tax to soft drinks or to SSB could decrease consumption particularly among the poor. Substitutions and complementarities with other food and beverages should be evaluated to assess the potential impact on total calories consumed.
    Economics and human biology 09/2015; 19:129-137. DOI:10.1016/j.ehb.2015.08.007 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    • "Mexican food markets are continuously invaded by artificial beverages that have little or no significant nutritional value. In addition, many of these products are known to contribute to obesity and diabetes, among others diseases, which are detrimental to Mexican families (Barquera et al. 2008; Astudillo 2014). As an alternative to commercial beverages, many Mexicans in different cities and communities continue to drink traditional fermented beverages. "

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    • "Consumption of fruits and vegetables fell sharply (-29%), as the consumption of cereals and tortilla (divided by 2), while consumption of refined carbohydrates has increased (+ 6%) and consumption of sodas increased sharply (+ 37%) [19] [20]. And in India, almost 85% of the food consumed are processed (cereal flour, bread, polished rice, and fermented milk) [21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: While gluten and wheat must be absolutely avoided in coeliac disease and allergy, respectively, nutritional recommendations are largely more confused about non-coeliac wheat/gluten sensitivity (NCWGS). Today, some even recommend avoiding all cereal-based foods. In this paper, the increased NCWGS prevalence is hypothesized to parallel the use of more and more drastic processes applied to the original wheat grain. First, a parallel between gluten-related disorders and wheat processing and consumption evolution is briefly proposed. Notably, increased use of exogenous vital gluten is considered. Drastic processing in wheat technology are mainly grain fractionation and refining followed by recombination and salt, sugars and fats addition, being able to render ultra-processed cereal-based foods more prone to trigger chronic low-grade inflammation. Concerning bread, intensive kneading and the choice of wheat varieties with high baking quality may have rendered gluten less digestible, moving digestion from pancreatic to intestinal proteases. The hypothesis of a gluten resistant fraction reaching colon and interacting with microflora is also considered in relation with increased inflammation. Besides, wheat flour refining removes fibre co-passenger which have potential anti-inflammatory property able to protect digestive epithelium. Finally, some research tracks are proposed, notably the comparison of NCWGS prevalence in populations consuming ultra- versus minimally-processed cereal-based foods.
    Medical Hypotheses 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2015.09.007 · 1.07 Impact Factor
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