Soy Protein Intake Has Sex-Specific Effects on the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese

Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 01/2009; 138(12):2413-21. DOI: 10.3945/jn.108.097519
Source: PubMed


Soy protein intake has been postulated to improve lipid profiles, glucose homeostasis, and blood pressure. However, data linking soy protein intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are limited. We evaluated the association between soy protein intake and the risk of MetS and its components among middle-aged and elderly Chinese. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2811 Chinese men and women aged 50-70 y, who were free of diagnosed cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Dietary data, including soy protein intake, was collected using a 74-item FFQ. MetS was defined using the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian-Americans. We used multivariate logistical regression models to quantify these associations. The median level of soy protein intake was 7.82 g/d (7.64 g/d in men and 8.02 g/d in women). Overall, the association of soy protein intake and the risk of MetS differed between men and women (P for interaction = 0.008). In men, the adjusted odds ratio comparing the extreme quartiles was 1.64 (95% CI: 0.95-2.81; P-trend = 0.077), whereas for women, it was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.42-1.03; P-trend = 0.138). Soy protein intake was positively associated with hyperglycemia (P-trend = 0.005) in men, whereas it was inversely associated with elevated blood pressure (P-trend = 0.049). It was not associated with any component in women. In conclusion, habitual soy protein intake may have sex-dependent effects on risk of MetS in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.

Download full-text


Available from: Oscar H Franco,
  • Source
    • "Few investigations have studied the effects of whole foods on inflammatory biomarkers [7] and foods rich in polyphenols seem to provide significant benefit to endothelial function [8]. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that whole soy food consumption is associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk in Asian populations [9] [10]. Further, there are limited data from randomized clinical trials on biological effects of whole soy foods consumed by Western populations. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ScopeSystemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Epidemiological evidence supports an association between whole soy food consumption and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this randomized, controlled, cross-over study was to evaluate the effects of soy nut consumption on inflammatory biomarkers and endothelial function and to assess whether isoflavone metabolism to secondary products, equol, and/or O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA), modifies these responses.Methods and resultsn = 17 adults at cardiometabolic risk were randomly assigned to the order of two snack interventions, soy nuts, and macronutrient-matched control snack, for four weeks each, separated by a two week washout period. Outcome measures included biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and glycemic control (ELISA and clinical analyzers), endothelial function, and arterial stiffness (peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT)), and isoflavone metabolites (LC-MS/MS). Results revealed that consuming soy nuts improved arterial stiffness as assessed by the augmentation index using PAT (p = 0.03), despite lack of improvement in inflammatory biomarkers. Addition of equol and/or ODMA production status as covariates did not significantly change these results.Conclusion Soy nuts when added to a usual diet for one month provide some benefit on arterial stiffness in adults at cardiometabolic risk.
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 02/2015; 59(2):323-33. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201400270 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "These values are consistent with the results of the Japanese National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [25], which reported that the average total energy intake of men with age ≥ 20 years was 2,173 ± 605 kcal. A study by Pan et al. in a population-based sample of 2,811 Chinese middle-aged and elderly, suggested habitual soy protein intake in men, but not in women, was associated with the risk of MetS [26]. Azadbakht et al. found that increased red meat consumption was cross-sectionally associated with greater risk of MetS and inflammation in 482 Tehrani females aged 40-60 years [27]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prevalence of men with cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF) is increasing in Japan. Few studies have comprehensively examined the relation between lifestyles and CMRF. We examined the baseline data from 3,498 male workers ages 19 to 69 years who participated in the high-risk and population strategy for occupational health promotion (HIPOP-OHP) study at 12 large-scale companies throughout Japan. The physical activity of each participant was classified according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Dietary intake was surveyed by a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. We defined four CMRF in this study as follows: 1) high blood pressure (BP): systolic BP ≥ 130 mmHg, or diastolic BP ≥ 85 mmHg, or the use of antihypertensive drugs; 2) dyslipidemia: high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration < 40 mg/dl, or triglycerides concentration ≥ 150 mg/dl, or on medication for dyslipidemia; 3) impaired glucose tolerance: fasting blood sugar concentration ≥110 mg/dl; 4) obese: a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Those who had 0 to 4 CMRF accounted for 1,597 (45.7%), 1,032 (29.5%), 587 (16.8%), 236 (6.7%), and 44 (1.3%) participants, respectively, in the Poisson distribution. Poisson regression analysis revealed that independent factors that contributed to the number of CMRF were age (b = 0.020, P < 0.01), IPAQ (b = -0.091, P < 0.01), alcohol intake (ml/day) (b = 0.001, P = 0.03), percentage of protein intake (b = 0.059, P = 0.01), and total energy intake (kcal)(b = 0.0001, P < 0.01). Furthermore, alcohol intake and its frequency had differential effects. Alcohol intake, percent protein and total energy intake were positively associated, whereas drinking frequency and IPAQ were inversely associated, with the number of CMRF.
    Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 11/2011; 3(1):30. DOI:10.1186/1758-5996-3-30 · 2.17 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Acerola is commercialized in different forms such as juices, jams, ice-creams, sweets, and liqueurs [38]. The presence of vitamins and antioxidants is known to reduce blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-c levels, and to elevate HDL-c levels [39–41]. Bhandari et al. [20] studied the antioxidant effects of Embelia ribes on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Wistar rats and found that it has important antioxidant activity in combating free radicals produced in hyperglycemic conditions, thus protecting against loss of beta cells. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Knowing that maternal diabetes is related to hyperglycemia and fetal hyperinsulinemia, which affect the lipid metabolism, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Malpighia emarginata (acerola) juice on the glycemic and lipid profile of offspring of diabetic and nondiabetic Wistar rats. The adult offspring of non-diabetic dams and of dams with severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes were divided into groups: G1, offspring (of control dams) treated with water, G2, offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with water, G3, male offspring (of control dams) treated with acerola juice, and G4, male offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with acerola juice. The offspring of diabetic dams treated with acerola juice showed significantly decreased levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and increased HDL-c. The use of acerola juice is a potential strategy to aid in the prevention of DM and dyslipidemia and its complications or to act as an auxiliary in the treatment of these diseases.
    Experimental Diabetes Research 01/2011; 2011(10):173647. DOI:10.1155/2011/173647 · 4.33 Impact Factor
Show more