Lycopene biodistribution is altered in 15,15'-carotenoid monooxygenase knockout mice.
ABSTRACT 15,15'-carotenoid monooxygenase (CMO I) is generally recognized as the central carotenoid cleavage enzyme responsible for converting provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A, while having little affinity for nonprovitamin A carotenoids, such as lycopene. To investigate the role of CMO I in carotenoid metabolism, approximately 90-d-old C57BL/6 x 129/SvJ [CMO I wild-type (WT)] and B6;129S6-Bcmo1tm1Dnp [CMO I knockout (KO)] mice were fed a high-fat, moderate vitamin A, cholesterol-containing diet supplemented with 150 mg/kg diet of beta-carotene, lycopene, or placebo beadlets for 60 d (n = 12-14). CMO I KO mice fed lycopene (Lyc-KO) exhibited significant decreases in hepatic, spleen, and thymus lycopene concentrations and significant increases in prostate, seminal vesicles, testes, and brain lycopene concentrations compared with WT mice fed lycopene (Lyc-WT). Furthermore, in the serum and all tissues analyzed, excluding the testes, there was a significant increase in the percent lycopene cis isomers in Lyc-KO mice compared with Lyc-WT mice. CMO I KO mice fed beta-carotene (betaC-KO) had significantly lower hepatic vitamin A concentrations (17% of WT mice fed beta-carotene [betaC-WT]). Concordantly, betaC-KO mice had higher serum and tissue beta-carotene concentrations than betaC-WT mice. In addition, phenotypically CMO I KO mice had significantly higher final body weights and CMO I KO female mice had significantly lower uterus weights than CMO I WT mice. In conclusion, CMO I KO mice fed low levels of vitamin A have altered lycopene biodistribution and isomer patterns and do not cleave beta-carotene to vitamin A at appreciable levels.
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ABSTRACT: Lycopene is a carotenoid whose biological activities and protective effect on prostate and breast cancer have been described, but little is known on its extra-intestinal metabolism and storage. While most alimentary lycopene is in all-trans configuration, in animal and human tissues approximately half of the lycopene is in cis isoforms. Our object was to monitor the capacity of storage, isomerisation, and intracellular localization of all-trans and cis lycopene in hepatic stellate cells, which are the major sites of metabolism and storage of retinoids and carotenoids in the body. We used the GRX cell line representative of murine hepatic stellate cells, incubated with 1-30 muM lycopene in culture medium. Analysis was done by high-performance liquid chromatography. Lycopene was able to induce expression of the lipocyte phenotype and it was internalized into GRX cells. Its cellular release only occurred in presence of albumin with a rapid initial decrease of intracellular lycopene. A corresponding increase in the culture medium was observed at 24 h. All-trans, 13-cis and 9-cis lycopene isoforms were identified in all the cell compartments. The membrane fraction contained the major part of lycopene, followed by the cytoplasmic fraction, lipid droplets and nuclei. The ratio between all-trans and cis isomers was approximately 2/1 in the majority parts of cell compartments. This study identified a novel hepatic cell type able to store and isomerise lycopene. Liver can contribute to the serum and tissue equilibrium of cis/trans isomers of lycopene, and to participate in storage of lycopene under high extracellular concentration such as observed after the alimentary input.European Journal of Nutrition 07/2009; 48(5):261-8. · 2.75 Impact Factor