A retrospective analysis of the potential impact of IgG antibodies to agalsidase beta on efficacy during enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease.
ABSTRACT Fabry disease results from a genetic deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A (alpha GAL) and the impaired catabolism of globotriasoylceramide (GL-3) and other glycosphingolipid substrates, which then accumulate pathogenically within most cells. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with agalsidase beta (Fabrazyme), one of two available forms of recombinant human alpha GAL, involves regular intravenous infusions of the therapeutic protein. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to recombinant alpha GAL develop in the majority of patients upon repeated infusion. To explore whether anti-alpha GAL IgG interferes with therapeutic efficacy, retrospective analyses were conducted using data obtained from a total of 134 adult male and female patients with Fabry disease who were treated with agalsidase beta at 1mg/kg every 2 weeks for up to 5 years during placebo-controlled trials and the corresponding open-label extension studies. The analyses did not reveal a correlation between anti-alpha GAL IgG titers and the onset of clinical events or the rate of change in estimated GFR during treatment, and no statistically significant association was found between anti-alpha GAL IgG titers and abnormal elevations in plasma GL-3 during treatment. However, a statistically significant association was found between anti-alpha GAL IgG titers and observation of some GL-3 deposition in the dermal capillary endothelial cells of skin during treatment, suggesting that GL-3 clearance may be partially impaired in some patients with high antibody titers. Determination of the long-term impact of circulating anti-alpha GAL IgG antibodies on clinical outcomes will require continued monitoring, and serology testing is recommended as part of the routine care of Fabry disease patients during ERT.
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Article: Fabry disease and the heart[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is induced by a mutation in the alpha-galactosidase A gene, causing a deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A. (1) The enzyme defect leads to progressive intracellular accumulation of globotriaosylceramide in lysosomes of various tissues and organs, including heart, kidney and nerve system. Cardiac involvement is common and is presenting as concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Myocardial replacement fibrosis is a typical feature of more advanced stages of Fabry cardiomyopathy, first limited to the mid-myocardial layers of the basal postero-lateral wall, then spreading to transmural fibrosis. Since 2001, enzyme replacement therapy is available. If therapy is started early, before myocardial fibrosis has developed, a long-term improvement of myocardial morphology, function and exercise capacity can be achieved. In end-stage cardiomyopathy enzyme replacement therapy might prevent further progression of the disease. This review provides an overview of Fabry disease, with a focus on cardiac involvement with its characteristic features, clinical presentation and possible treatment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.Best Practice & Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10/2014; 29(2). DOI:10.1016/j.beem.2014.10.003 · 4.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is treated by two-weekly infusions with α-galactosidase A, which is deficient in this X-linked globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) storage disorder. Elevated plasma globotriaosylsphingosine (lysoGb3) is a hallmark of classical Fabry disease. We investigated effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on plasma levels of lysoGb3 and Gb3 in patients with classical Fabry disease treated with agalsidase alfa at 0.2mg/kg, agalsidase beta at 0.2mg/kg or at 1.0mg/kg bodyweight. Each treatment regimen led to prominent reductions of plasma lysoGb3 in Fabry males within 3 months (P=0.0313), followed by relative stability later on. Many males developed antibodies against α-galactosidase A, particularly those treated with agalsidase beta. Patients with antibodies tended towards smaller correction in plasma lysoGb3 concentration, whereas treatment with high dose agalsidase beta allowed a reduction comparable to patients without antibodies. Pre-treatment plasma lysoGb3 concentrations of Fabry females were relatively low. In all females and with each treatment regimen, ERT gave reduction or stabilisation of plasma lysoGb3. Our investigation revealed that ERT of Fabry patients reduces plasma lysoGb3, regardless of the recombinant enzyme used. This finding shows that ERT can correct a characteristic biochemical abnormality in Fabry patients.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2011; 1812(1):70-6. DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2010.09.007 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The proximity effect, caused by electron-beam backscattering during resist exposure, can be compensated for by appropriate local changes in the incident beam dose, but the optimal correction, found iteratively, requires a prohibitively long time for realistic pattern sizes. A neural network has been used to perform these corrections, resulting in a significant decrease in computation time. The correction was first computed for a small test pattern using an iterative method. This solution was used as a training set for an adaptive, feedforward neural network, using back-propagation learning. After training, the network computed the same correction as the iterative method, but in a much shorter timeNeural Networks, 1990., 1990 IJCNN International Joint Conference on; 07/1990