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Available from: Teresa K Tarrant, Sep 22, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can rapidly progress and occasionally be fatal. In instances in which the triggering allergen is not obvious, establishing the cause of anaphylaxis is pivotal to long-term management. Assigning cause is limited, however, by the number of known exposures associated with anaphylaxis. Therefore identification of novel causative agents can provide an important step forward in facilitating new, allergen-specific approaches to management. In contrast to the view that carbohydrate-directed IgE has minimal, if any, clinical significance, recent data suggest that IgE antibodies to carbohydrate epitopes can be an important factor in anaphylaxis that might otherwise appear to be idiopathic. Here we review the evidence relating to carbohydrates in food allergy and anaphylaxis and discuss the implications of a new mammalian cross-reactive carbohydrate determinant.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 10/2009; 124(4):652-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2009.08.026 · 11.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid desensitization, a procedure for graded drug administration, allows for the safe readministration of a medication after certain types of hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) and is indicated in cases in which there are no reasonable therapeutic alternatives. The use of rapid desensitization for HSRs to mAbs has not been validated. We sought to describe our experience with rapid desensitization to mAbs, including rituximab, infliximab, and trastuzumab. One hundred five rapid desensitizations were performed in 23 patients with a standardized 12-step, 6-hour protocol. Our approach to patient evaluation before desensitization is described. The severity, characteristics, and timing of both initial HSRs and HSRs during desensitization were determined by means of retrospective review of medical records. After a reaction during desensitization, patient-specific protocol modifications were made before each subsequent desensitization. 104 of 105 desensitizations undertaken were successfully completed. We observed HSRs during 29% of desensitizations, including 27 mild reactions, 1 moderate reaction, and 2 severe reactions. Overall, reactions during desensitization were markedly less severe than initial HSRs, but reactions did recur in a minority of successive desensitizations. Rapid desensitization is a promising method for the delivery of monoclonal therapeutics after an HSR, but the possibility of a reaction remains with each desensitization.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 11/2009; 124(6):1259-66. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2009.09.009 · 11.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The IgE response to pollen allergens often includes IgE antibodies specific for glycosylation motifs on the pollen proteins. These oligosaccharides are present on many different species and are known as cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. However, IgE antibodies to plant-derived cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants seem to have only minor clinical significance and have not been related to anaphylaxis. Recently, two novel forms of anaphylaxis have become apparent in the southeastern United States: 1) reactions during the first infusion of the monoclonal antibody cetuximab and 2) adult-onset delayed anaphylaxis to red meat. Detailed investigation of serum antibodies established that in both cases, the patients had IgE antibodies specific for the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose alpha-1, 3-galactose. Identification of these cases is helpful in avoiding infusion reactions to cetuximab or recommending specific avoidance of meat derived from mammals. However, the current evidence does not fully resolve why these IgE antibodies are so common in the Southeast or why the anaphylactic or urticarial reactions to red meat are delayed.
    Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 01/2010; 10(1):29-33. DOI:10.1007/s11882-009-0079-1 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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