Transcriptional activation of the human CYP1A1 gene (coding for cytochrome P450 1A1) is mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. In the present study we have examined interaction of the ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 with the carcinogen activation pathway mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in HepG2 cells. RT-PCR was used to determine the CYP1A1 mRNA levels. The results showed that in HepG2 cells CYP1A1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in a concentration- and time- dependent manner by ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1. Ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 activated the DNA-binding capacity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor for the xenobiotic responsive element of CYP1A1 as measured by the electrophoretic-mobility shift assay (EMSA). Rg1 and Rb1 were able to activate the ability of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor to bind to an oligonucleotide containing the xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE) of the cyp1a1 promoter. These results indicate that Rg1 and Rb1's effects on CYP1A1 induction are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Since CYP1A1 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor play important roles in carcinogenesis, development, differentiation and many other essential physiological functions, these results suggest that the chemopreventive effect of Panax ginseng may be due, in part, to ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1's ability to compete with aryl hydrocarbons for both the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and CYP1A1. Rg1 and Rb1 may thus be natural ligands and substrates of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor or have relationship with aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway. These properties might be of help for future studies in P. ginseng and chemoprevention in chemical-induced cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Artemisinin has been used to treat malaria for centuries in the context of traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, the effects of artemisinin on pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated CYP3A expression and its therapeutic role in inflammatory bowel disease were investigated. LS174T cells exposed to artemisinin at various concentrations and for different periods of time were examined with respect to the specific induction of CYP3A4 and PXR mRNA expression. Transient transfection experiments showed transcriptional activation of the CYP3A4 gene through artemisinin to be PXR-dependent. An electrophoretic-mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that artemisinin activates the DNA-binding capacity of the PXR for the CYP3A4 element. These results indicate that the induction of CYP3A4 by artemisinin is mediated through the activation of PXR. Using animal models, it was demonstrated that artemisinin abrogates dextran sulfate sodium (DDS)-induced intestinal inflammation. Preadministration of artemisinin ameliorated the clinical hallmarks of colitis in DSS-treated mice as determined by body weight loss and assessment of diarrhea, rectal bleeding, colon length, and histology. Artemisinin was found to prevent or reduce the severity of colonic inflammation by inducing CYP3A expression by activation of PXR.
European Journal of Pharmacology 05/2014; 738. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.04.050 · 2.53 Impact Factor
"The CYP1A1 enzymes mediate the bioactivation of carcinogens found both in the human diet and in the environment, including compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as 3-methylcholanthrene, benzo(a)pyrene, polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, and certain congeners of polyhalogenated biphenyls . Our finding that the EMGE increased the expression of CYP1A1 is consistent with the previous results showing the induction of CYP1A1 expression by ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ginsenosides are ginseng saponins, which are the major biologically active components of Panax ginseng, often metabolized by intestinal bacteria into more effective forms. In this study, we found that the antiproliferative activity of ginseng increased after enzymatic processing of ginseng saponin (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], >30 μ g/mL), which may be the result of the accumulation of minor saponins, such as Rh1, Rg3, compound K, and PPT constituents in ginseng saponin. Using the Agilent PrimeView Human Gene Expression Array, we found that the expression of several genes involved in apoptosis (caspase-4, Annexin A2, HSPA9, AIFM1, UQCRC2, and caspase-7) were increased in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells after their treatment with enzyme-modified ginseng extract (EMGE). Furthermore, several genes implicated in cell cycle progression (CDCA3, CDCA8, CABLES2, CDC25B, CNNM3, and CCNK) showed decreased expression in HepG2 cells treated with EMGE. Finally, from flow cytometric analysis, we found that EMGE-treated HepG2 cells showed increased apoptotic sub-G1 population (24%), compared with that observed in DMSO-treated control cells (1.6%). Taken together, our results suggest that EMGE induces anticancer activity through the induction of apoptosis-related genes and cell cycle arrest via decreased expression of cell cycle regulatory genes.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2013; 2013:502568. DOI:10.1155/2013/502568 · 1.88 Impact Factor
"However, while induction of human CYP1A1 gene expression is known to be mediated by the AHR, several studies have also demonstrated induction by the retinoic acid receptor and other signaling mechanisms [3,16–18]. Additionally, since the study of Wang et al. (2008) did not determine whether these compounds directly stimulated induction of CYP1A1, or whether the response was secondary (i.e. due to a ginsenoside metabolite or activation of an alternative pathway), the mechanism(s) responsible for ginsenoside-dependent induction of CYP1A1 still remains an open question . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates many of the biological and toxicological actions of structurally diverse chemicals. In this study, we examined the ability of a series of ginsenosides extracted from ginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine, to bind to and activate/inhibit the AHR and AHR signal transduction. Utilizing a combination of ligand and DNA binding assays, molecular docking and reporter gene analysis, we demonstrated the ability of selected ginsenosides to directly bind to and activate the guinea pig cytosolic AHR, and to stimulate/inhibit AHR-dependent luciferase gene expression in a recombinant guinea pig cell line. Comparative studies revealed significant species differences in the ability of ginsenosides to stimulate AHR-dependent gene expression in guinea pig, rat, mouse and human cell lines. Not only did selected ginsenosides preferentially activate the AHR from one species and not others, mouse cell line was also significantly less responsive to these chemicals than rat and guinea pig cell lines, but the endogenous gene CYP1A1 could still be inducted in mouse cell line. Overall, the ability of these compounds to stimulate AHR signal transduction demonstrated that these ginsenosides are a new class of naturally occurring AHR agonists.
PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e66258. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0066258 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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