Treatment of arteriovenous malformations: assessment of 2 techniques--transmandibular curettage versus resection and immediate replantation.
ABSTRACT This study evaluates 2 surgical methods used at our center for the treatment of mandibular arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): resection with immediate replantation and curettage via proximal transmandibular osteotomy.
Patients with AVMs of the mandible who were treated during a 17-year period between 1992 and 2008 at our department were assessed. Two surgical techniques were used for treatment: 1) resection of the segment, curettage of the intrabony lesion, extraction of involved teeth, and immediate replantation and 2) proximal osteotomy curettage of the lesion within the bone and extraction of involved teeth. In the replantation group the resected segment of the mandible was replanted after the contents were scraped out and the involved teeth removed. In contrast, in the proximal osteotomy group this was done without removal of the bone segment. In both techniques the cortical bone of the mandible was maintained. However, in the transmandibular curettage group the periosteum was not entirely stripped off because curettage was done via proximal osteotomy without removal of the segment. The entire intrabony lesion and a margin of cancellous bone related to the lesion were excised in both groups. The bone was fixed with titanium plates in all cases. All patients were followed up annually for a period of 1 to 17 years (mean, 9.5 years).
We treated 12 patients with mandibular AVMs (2 male and 10 female patients). Their ages ranged from 7 to 17 years. Preoperative angiography showed high-flow central vascular lesions in all patients. Of the lesions, 7 (58%) were treated via resection with immediate replantation and 5 (42%) were treated via transmandibular curettage. Embolization was performed in 4 cases 48 hours before surgery. However, blood loss was not significantly decreased by embolization. The lesions were categorized as multilocular (58.3%) or unicystic (41.7%) based on the radiographic findings and were located in the mandibular body (66.7%) or ramus (33.3%). Blood loss averaged 1.60 L in the group undergoing resection and immediate replantation and 1.30 L in the transmandibular curettage group. During the follow-up period, no recurrences were encountered in either group via clinical, radiographic, or computed tomography scan assessment, and none of the patients had facial deformities develop.
The results suggest that transmandibular curettage via proximal osteotomy without complete resection is an effective less invasive method with which to treat AVMs of the mandible provided that the lesion is small, is confined within the bone, and has not invaded the soft tissues. Less blood loss, preservation of the bone, more favorable postoperative esthetics, and better function are among the advantages of this technique. In more extensive cases and those involving both hard and soft tissues, resection with immediate replantation is recommended. Both techniques obviated the need for bone graft reconstruction. This technique is better than resection and discarding of the segment.