Functional Properties of Honey, Propolis, and Royal Jelly

Grupo Industrialización de Productos de Origen Animal (IPOA), Generalitat Valenciana, Departamento de Tecnología Agroalimentaria, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Ctra, E-03312 Orihuela, Alicante, Spain.
Journal of Food Science (Impact Factor: 1.7). 12/2008; 73(9):R117-24. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00966.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Honey, propolis, and royal jelly, products originating in the beehive, are attractive ingredients for healthy foods. Honey has been used since ancient times as part of traditional medicine. Several aspects of this use indicate that it also has functions such as antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflamatory, antibrowning, and antiviral. Propolis is a resinous substance produced by honeybees. This substance has been used in folk medicine since ancient times, due to its many biological properties to possess, such as antitumor, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects, among others. Royal jelly has been demonstrated to possess numerous functional properties such as antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, vasodilative and hypotensive activities, disinfectant action, antioxidant activity, antihypercholesterolemic activity, and antitumor activity. Biological activities of honey, propolis, and royal jelly are mainly attributed to the phenolic compounds such as flavonoids. Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, and vasodilatory actions. In addition, flavonoids inhibit lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation, capillary permeability and fragility, and the activity of enzyme systems including cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase.

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    • "Phenolic compounds are major bioactive constituents of the resinous and pollen fraction of propolis (bee glue), materials that account for 55% of this valuable honeybee product. Flavonoids and phenolic acid derivates represent two of the major classes of phenolic compounds of PE, which are regarded as a kind of natural compounds that has been subject of considerable scientific interest [1] [2] [3]. Many studies have suggested that these compounds obtained from PE with different solvent extraction (i.e. "
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    ABSTRACT: Phenolic compounds are the major chemical constituents of propolis extracts (PE) and are characterized by possessing antiradical activity. In this work the structure-antiradical properties relationship of flavonoids (chrysin, galangin, pinocembrin and pinostrobin) and phenolic acid (caffeic acid phenethyl ester) commonly found in PE was investigated trough M05-2X functional in conjunction with the 6-31G(d,p) and 6-31+G(d,p) basis sets, considering the structural properties, and free-radical inhibition mechanism: H-atom transfer (HAT), the stepwise electron-transfer–proton-transfer (SPLET) and the sequential proton loss electron transfer (SET–PT). To complement the ability of phenolic compounds to act as antiradical the chemical indexes and Fukui indexes were analyzed. Thermodynamically, the HAT mechanism contributes much in the antiradical activity of reactive group (O–H and C–H) of phenolic compounds. All compounds present a greater tendency to give electrons than to attract them. We found different reactive sites for nucleophilic, electrophilic and radical attack in molecules, which could mark differences in their antiradical activity.
    Computational and Theoretical Chemistry 08/2015; 1066. DOI:10.1016/j.comptc.2015.05.003 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    • "Moreover, strains isolated from oral infections are frequently resistant to standard synthetic antibacterial agents. Since many reports have shown that antibiotics are often ineffective in the eradication of oral biofilm, further studies regarding biological agents, including natural organic substances, may support the need for alternative antibacterial protocols to be applied for the treatment of refractory infections caused by oral microorganisms [9] [22]. Propolis, a natural compound, is a wax/resin mixture used by bees to seal up holes or slits in their beehives. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a topically administered hygienic preparation containing a 3% ethanolic extract of Brazilian green propolis (EEP-B) on oral microflora spectrum changes in a group of patients who underwent common oral surgery procedures. Two gel samples were compared: the tested gel containing an active ingredient, that is, a 3% EEP-B (gel GA), and a placebo as the negative control (gel GC). The collection of microbiological material included 14 patients requiring surgical extraction of wisdom molars and short endosseous implant installation. Clinical examinations were carried out as follow-up, that is, baseline and after 5-6 weeks’ time. During the first and subsequent assessment, swabs were taken from the mucosal surface. The number of microorganism species was found to have increased following the application of GC gel over the period of 5-6 weeks. This mainly affected Gram-positive rods and bacilli as well as Gram-negative rods. Application of the GA gel enriched with 3% EEP-B caused a profound reduction in the amount of Neisseria spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. strains. Elimination of seven species of microorganisms was observed: Streptococcus acidominimus, Streptococcus oralis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Veillonella parvula, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Lactobacillus acidophilus.
    BioMed Research International 08/2015; 2015(2015):10. DOI:10.1155/2015/869575 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    • "Almost all apitherapy products are rich sources of vitamins A and C, phenolic acids, flavonoids and anticyanins with strong antioxidant effects, B vitamins (B1-B12) are used in metabolism regulation and with coenzyme functions and metal ions such as Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, F and CI and trace elements [3] [4] [5] [6]. Regular consumption of honey with high antioxidant properties, leads to an increase in the body's antioxidant capacity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Honey has been shown to contain glucose oxidase, which produces gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide from glucose. Dilution of honey results in a significant increase in the activity of this molecule. Inhibine, an antibacterial substance previously described in honey, has been identified as hydrogen peroxide, which is manufactured at inhibine assay by the natural glucose oxidase in honey. Inhibine levels have been shown to be directly associated with hydrogen peroxide production.
    Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly ?Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Infective Agents) 05/2015; 13(1). DOI:10.2174/2211352513666150318234101
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