Oncoprotein BMI-1 induces the malignant transformation of HaCaT cells.
ABSTRACT BMI-1 (B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1), a novel oncogene, has attracted much attention in recent years for its involvement in the initiation of a variety of tumors. Recent evidence showed that BMI-1 was highly expressed in neoplastic skin lesions. However, whether dysregulated BMI-1 expression is causal for the transformation of skin cells remains unknown. In this study, we stably expressed BMI-1 in a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. The expression of wild-type BMI-1 induced the malignant transformation of HaCaT cells in vitro. More importantly, we found that expression of BMI-1 promoted formation of squamous cell carcinomas in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that BMI-1 expression led to the downregulation of tumor suppressors, such as p16INK4a and p14ARF, cell adhesion molecules, such as E-Cadherin, and differentiation related factor, such as KRT6. Therefore, our findings demonstrated that dysregulated BMI-1 could indeed lead to keratinocytes transformation and tumorigenesis, potentially through promoting cell cycle progression and increasing cell mobility.
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer stem cells, the root of tumor growth, present challenges to investigate: Primary human breast cancer cells are difficult to establish in culture and inconsistently yield tumors after transplantation into immune-deficient recipient mice. Furthermore, there is limited characterization of mammary cancer stem cells in mice, the ideal model for the study of breast cancer. We herein describe a pre-clinical breast cancer stem cell model, based on the properties of cancer stem cells, derived from transgenic MMTV-PyMT mice. Using a defined set of cell surface markers to identify cancer stem cells by flow cytometry, at least four cell populations were recovered from primary mammary cancers. Only two of the four populations, one epithelial and one mesenchymal, were able to survive and proliferate in vitro. The epithelial population exhibited tumor initiation potential with as few as 10 cells injected into syngeneic immune-competent recipients. Tumors initiated from injected cell lines recapitulated the morphological and physiological components of the primary tumor. To highlight the stemness potential of the putative cancer stem cells, B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi-1) expression was knocked down via shRNA targeting Bmi-1. Without Bmi-1 expression, putative cancer stem cells could no longer initiate tumors, but tumor initiation was rescued with the introduction of a Bmi-1 overexpression vector in the Bmi-1 knockdown cells. In conclusion, our data show that primary mammary cancers from MMTV-PyMT mice contain putative cancer stem cells that survive in culture and can be used to create a model for study of mammary cancer stem cells.Tumor Biology 08/2012; · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genomic instability with frequent DNA copy number alterations is one of the key hallmarks of carcinogenesis. The chromosomal regions with frequent DNA copy number gain and loss in human gastric cancer are still poorly defined. It remains unknown how the DNA copy number variations contributes to the changes of gene expression profiles, especially on the global level. We analyzed DNA copy number alterations in 64 human gastric cancer samples and 8 gastric cancer cell lines using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Statistical analysis was applied to correlate previously published gene expression data obtained from cDNA microarrays with corresponding DNA copy number variation data to identify candidate oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. We found that gastric cancer samples showed recurrent DNA copy number variations, including gains at 5p, 8q, 20p, 20q, and losses at 4q, 9p, 18q, 21q. The most frequent regions of amplification were 20q12 (7/72), 20q12-20q13.1 (12/72), 20q13.1-20q13.2 (11/72) and 20q13.2-20q13.3 (6/72). The most frequent deleted region was 9p21 (8/72). Correlating gene expression array data with aCGH identified 321 candidate oncogenes, which were overexpressed and showed frequent DNA copy number gains; and 12 candidate tumor suppressor genes which were down-regulated and showed frequent DNA copy number losses in human gastric cancers. Three networks of significantly expressed genes in gastric cancer samples were identified by ingenuity pathway analysis. This study provides insight into DNA copy number variations and their contribution to altered gene expression profiles during human gastric cancer development. It provides novel candidate driver oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes for human gastric cancer, useful pathway maps for the future understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this malignancy, and the construction of new therapeutic targets.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e29824. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epigenetics is an important emerging area for study of mechanisms of cancer prevention. In recent years, it has been realized that cancer prevention agents, derived from natural dietary sources, impact cancer cell survival by modulating epigenetic processes. In the present manuscript, we review key epigenetic regulatory mechanisms and examine the impact of sulforaphane and green tea polyphenols on these processes. We also discuss available information on the epigenetics in the context of skin cancer. These studies indicate that diet-derived chemopreventive agents modulate DNA methylation status and histone modification via multiple processes and point to additional areas for study of epigenetic mechanisms in skin cancer.The AAPS Journal 08/2013; · 4.39 Impact Factor