Oncoprotein BMI-1 induces the malignant transformation of HaCaT cells.
ABSTRACT BMI-1 (B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1), a novel oncogene, has attracted much attention in recent years for its involvement in the initiation of a variety of tumors. Recent evidence showed that BMI-1 was highly expressed in neoplastic skin lesions. However, whether dysregulated BMI-1 expression is causal for the transformation of skin cells remains unknown. In this study, we stably expressed BMI-1 in a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. The expression of wild-type BMI-1 induced the malignant transformation of HaCaT cells in vitro. More importantly, we found that expression of BMI-1 promoted formation of squamous cell carcinomas in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that BMI-1 expression led to the downregulation of tumor suppressors, such as p16INK4a and p14ARF, cell adhesion molecules, such as E-Cadherin, and differentiation related factor, such as KRT6. Therefore, our findings demonstrated that dysregulated BMI-1 could indeed lead to keratinocytes transformation and tumorigenesis, potentially through promoting cell cycle progression and increasing cell mobility.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Most human acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cells have limited proliferative capacity, suggesting that the leukaemic clone may be maintained by a rare population of stem cells. This putative leukaemic stem cell has not been characterized because the available in vitro assays can only detect progenitors with limited proliferative and replating potential. We have now identified an AML-initiating cell by transplantation into severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice. These cells homed to the bone marrow and proliferated extensively in response to in vivo cytokine treatment, resulting in a pattern of dissemination and leukaemic cell morphology similar to that seen in the original patients. Limiting dilution analysis showed that the frequency of these leukaemia-initiating cells in the peripheral blood of AML patients was one engraftment unit in 250,000 cells. We fractionated AML cells on the basis of cell-surface-marker expression and found that the leukaemia-initiating cells that could engraft SCID mice to produce large numbers of colony-forming progenitors were CD34+ CD38-; however, the CD34+ CD38+ and CD34- fractions contained no cells with these properties. This in vivo model replicates many aspects of human AML and defines a new leukaemia-initiating cell which is less mature than colony-forming cells.Nature 03/1994; 367(6464):645-8. · 38.60 Impact Factor
Article: Remembering silence.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Polycomb response elements (PREs) are regulatory switch elements that can direct the genes that they control to be either active or silenced. Once decided, this on or off state is maintained through subsequent cell divisions. We do not know how the switching works, or how it is copied to newly replicated chromosomes. Experiments that switch a silenced PRE to an active state have provided insights into both questions. A PRE switched experimentally can remember its previously silenced state and return to it after several cell divisions. In the most recent study of this phenomen on, the data show that several distinct variables affect the ability of PREs to "remember" and restore their previous state. The authors' interpretation of these results is discussed here.BioEssays 08/2001; 23(7):566-70. · 5.42 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins, such as BMI-1 and EZH2, form multimeric gene-repressing complexes involved in axial patterning, hematopoiesis, and cell cycle regulation. In addition, BMI-1 is involved in experimental lymphomagenesis. Little is known about its role in human lymphomagenesis. Here, BMI-1 and EZH2 expression patterns are analyzed in a variety of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHLs), including small lymphocytic lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, large B-cell lymphoma, mantle-cell lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma. In contrast to the mutually exclusive pattern of BMI-1 and EZH2 in reactive follicles, the neoplastic cells in B-NHLs of intermediate- and high-grade malignancy showed strong coexpression of BMI-1 and EZH2. This pattern overlapped with the expression of Mib-1/Ki-67, a marker for proliferation. Neoplastic cells in B-NHL of low-grade malignancy were either BMI-1(low)/EZH2(+) (neoplastic centroblasts) or BMI-1(low)EZH2(-) (neoplastic centrocytes). These observations show that low-, intermediate-, and high grade B-NHLs are associated with increased coexpression of the BMI-1 and EZH2 PcG proteins, whose normal expression pattern is mutually exclusive. This expression pattern is probably caused by a failure to down-regulate BMI-1 in dividing neoplastic cells, because BMI-1 expression is absent from normal dividing B cells. These observations are in agreement with findings in studies of Bmi-1 transgenic mice. The extent of BMI-1/EZH2 coexpression correlated with clinical grade and the presence of Mib-1/Ki-67 expression, suggesting that the irregular expression of BMI-1 and EZH2 is an early event in the formation of B-NHL. This points to a role for abnormal PcG expression in human lymphomagenesis. (Blood. 2001;97:3896-3901)Blood 07/2001; 97(12):3896-901. · 9.06 Impact Factor