Curcumin counteracts the aluminium-induced ageing-related alterations in oxidative stress, Na+, K+ ATPase and protein kinase C in adult and old rat brain regions.
ABSTRACT This study investigated the effect of curcumin on aluminium-induced alterations in ageing-related parameters: lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), protein kinase C (PKC), Na(+), K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the brain of 10- and 24-month-old rats. Measurements taken from aluminium-fed rats were compared with those from rats in which curcumin and aluminium were co-administered. In aluminium-treated rats the levels of lipid peroxidation, PKC and AChE were enhanced while the activities of SOD, GPx, GST and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase were significantly decreased in both the brain regions of both age-groups. In animals co-administered with curcumin and aluminium, the levels of lipid peroxidation, activities of PKC and AChE were significantly lowered while the activities of SOD, GPx, GST and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase were significantly enhanced in the two brain regions studied indicating curcumin's protective effects against aluminium toxicity. Though the magnitudes of curcumin-induced alterations varied in young and old animals, the results of the present study also demonstrated that curcumin exerts a protective effect against aluminium-induced elevation of ageing-related changes by modulating the extent of oxidative stress (by upregulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes) and by regulating the activities of Na(+), K(+) ATPase, PKC and AChE. Therefore, it is suggested that curcumin counters aluminium-induced enhancement in ageing-related processes.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Aluminum (Al) is a ubiquitous substance encountered both naturally (as the third most abundant element) and intentionally (used in water, foods, pharmaceuticals, and vaccines); it is also present in ambient and occupational airborne particulates. Existing data underscore the importance of Al physical and chemical forms in relation to its uptake, accumulation, and systemic bioavailability. The present review represents a systematic examination of the peer-reviewed literature on the adverse health effects of Al materials published since a previous critical evaluation compiled by Krewski et al. (2007) . Challenges encountered in carrying out the present review reflected the experimental use of different physical and chemical Al forms, different routes of administration, and different target organs in relation to the magnitude, frequency, and duration of exposure. Wide variations in diet can result in Al intakes that are often higher than the World Health Organization provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), which is based on studies with Al citrate. Comparing daily dietary Al exposures on the basis of "total Al"assumes that gastrointestinal bioavailability for all dietary Al forms is equivalent to that for Al citrate, an approach that requires validation. Current occupational exposure limits (OELs) for identical Al substances vary as much as 15-fold. The toxicity of different Al forms depends in large measure on their physical behavior and relative solubility in water. The toxicity of soluble Al forms depends upon the delivered dose of Al(+ 3) to target tissues. Trivalent Al reacts with water to produce bidentate superoxide coordination spheres [Al(O2)(H2O4)(+ 2) and Al(H2O)6 (+ 3)] that after complexation with O2(•-), generate Al superoxides [Al(O2(•))](H2O5)](+ 2). Semireduced AlO2(•) radicals deplete mitochondrial Fe and promote generation of H2O2, O2 (• -) and OH(•). Thus, it is the Al(+ 3)-induced formation of oxygen radicals that accounts for the oxidative damage that leads to intrinsic apoptosis. In contrast, the toxicity of the insoluble Al oxides depends primarily on their behavior as particulates. Aluminum has been held responsible for human morbidity and mortality, but there is no consistent and convincing evidence to associate the Al found in food and drinking water at the doses and chemical forms presently consumed by people living in North America and Western Europe with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neither is there clear evidence to show use of Al-containing underarm antiperspirants or cosmetics increases the risk of AD or breast cancer. Metallic Al, its oxides, and common Al salts have not been shown to be either genotoxic or carcinogenic. Aluminum exposures during neonatal and pediatric parenteral nutrition (PN) can impair bone mineralization and delay neurological development. Adverse effects to vaccines with Al adjuvants have occurred; however, recent controlled trials found that the immunologic response to certain vaccines with Al adjuvants was no greater, and in some cases less than, that after identical vaccination without Al adjuvants. The scientific literature on the adverse health effects of Al is extensive. Health risk assessments for Al must take into account individual co-factors (e.g., age, renal function, diet, gastric pH). Conclusions from the current review point to the need for refinement of the PTWI, reduction of Al contamination in PN solutions, justification for routine addition of Al to vaccines, and harmonization of OELs for Al substances.Critical Reviews in Toxicology 10/2014; 44(S4):1-80. DOI:10.3109/10408444.2014.934439 · 6.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the correlation between psychological stress and masseter muscle (MM) alterations, and explore the therapeutic agents for restoring the impaired masticatory muscle. We established a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) animal model and observed the changes of ultrastructure, redox homeostasis and energy metabolism in MM in rats with and without curcumin treatment. The depressive-like behavior in stressed rats was confirmed by the evidences of altered behaviors in sucrose preference test and open field test; while these phenomena were eased by curcumin. Except for the pathological changes in ultrastructure, decreased SOD, GSH-Px, CAT, Na(+)-K(+)ATPase, and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)ATPase activities as well as increased MDA and LD content and LDH activity were also observed in MM in stressed rats. However, curcumin was capable of reversing CUMS-induced MM disorder by improving the activities of the examined anti-oxidant enzymes and energy metabolism enzymes. Additionally, the increased MDA content, LD content, and LDH activity in stressed rats were reduced by curcumin. All the findings indicate the adverse effects of CUMS on MM function in rats, and raise the possibility of developing curcumin as a potential therapeutic agent for psychological stress-induced masseter dysfunction.Archives of oral biology 03/2014; 59(3):258-67. DOI:10.1016/j.archoralbio.2013.12.001 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Azidothymidine (AZT) is one of the anti-retroviral drugs currently used for the treatment of HIV-infected patients. Several other effects of the drug have been studied in vitro, such as the alterations of some enzymes, the inhibition of cell proliferation, and the increase of transferrin receptor expression. In this study, we investigated the alterations of protein kinase C (PKC) activity, PKCα and PKCβII expressions and plasmatic membrane fluidity induced by AZT in two cancer cell lines, human chronic myeloid (K562) and human acute lymphoblastic (HSB-2) leukemia cells, respectively. The results showed that both PKC activity and membrane fluidity in HSB-2 cells increased after 24 h of drug incubation. PKCα expression in HSB-2 cells decreased after 48 h of AZT exposure, when the cell growth also decreased. However, in K562 cells, the PKCα and PKCβII expressions enhanced in the presence of the drug when the growth was inhibited. The results indicate that AZT is less effective in inhibiting the growth of acute lymphoblastic HSB-2 leukemia cells than inhibiting that of chronic myeloid K562 cells. In fact, after 24 h exposure, the HSB-2 cell growth decreased less than K562 cell growth. © The Author 2015. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/abbs/gmv003 · 2.09 Impact Factor