Beyond polemics: Science and ethics of ADHD

London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London, WC2A 2AE, UK.
Nature Reviews Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 31.43). 01/2009; 9(12):957-64. DOI: 10.1038/nrn2514
Source: PubMed


What is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Why are so many children being diagnosed with ADHD and prescribed medication? Are stimulant drugs an effective and safe treatment strategy? This article explores the current state of scientific research into ADHD and the key social and ethical concerns that are emerging from the sharp rise in the number of diagnoses and the use of stimulant drug treatments in children. Collaborations among scientists, social scientists and ethicists are likely to be the most promising route to understanding what ADHD is and what stimulant drugs do.

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Available from: Ilina Singh, Oct 27, 2015
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    • "Disorders are identified by school behaviour and achievements rather than by clearly defined clinical criteria (Bailey, 2013). Therefore, claims that the syndrome is biologically determined are regularly contested by the priming of social causes (Rafalovich, 2005; Singh, 2008). Accordingly, the media shift between representing ADHD as a medical issue or mainly as the behaviour of mischievous children (Clarke, 2011; Horton-Salway, 2011; Bourdaa et al., 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: The news media form major sources of information to the general public in matters of science and health. And yet journalists and experts differ in what they consider as newsworthy and relevant. This article analyses in detail a current affair interview with a health expert reporting on a new research on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Applying Bamberg's three-level model for positioning analysis, the interview is searched for the stories that speakers introduce, attend to their embedding in the design of questions and answers and examine how their tellers are positioned therein as knowledgeable regarding ADHD. The narratives identified are shown to enable the adopting and shifting between various expert positions including that of the scientific researcher, the advice-giving expert and the more specific identity of the public health clinician. Shifts between these positions are shown to reflect the claims and counter-claims that the interviewee and interviewers are making and backing. These findings are discussed for their implications regarding the use of narratives in presenting science to media audiences.
    Discourse &amp Communication 10/2015; Online first. DOI:10.1177/1750481315600303 · 0.94 Impact Factor
    • "We used a multiple baseline design across students (Barlow et al. 2009), with three phases: baseline, Samatha meditation training, and meditation practice. Although the intervention could be considered a cognitive behavioral strategy (Singh et al. 2008), the outcomes lend themselves to quantitative measurement. Thus, a multiple baseline design was chosen for demonstrating experimental control by assessing if the students' active engagement in math instruction and percentage of math problems solved would covary with the introduction and practice of Samatha meditation. "

    Mindfulness 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12671-015-0424-5
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    • "ADHD becomes typically evident in the first decade of life, and tends to persist through adolescence and adulthood (Swanson et al. 1998). Despite extensive research, there is continuous debate on both the validity and prevalence of ADHD (Singh, 2008). The use of medications to treat ADHD has been rapidly increasing worldwide, a phenomenon that has raised concern about the appropriateness and safety of this practice (Dalsgaard et al. 2013; Thomas et al. 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. The rate with which attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is diagnosed varies widely across countries, suggesting that cultural factors influence the clinical interpretation of child behaviour. This study estimated the point prevalence of severe ADHD among elementary and middle-school Italian children. Method. An epidemiological sample of 2016 children attending 2nd-8th grade in the Italian regions of Tuscany and Latium was selected based on census distribution of the school-age population. Teachers completed the Italian version of the ADHD Rating Scale for Teachers (SDAI). For children with at least six inattention symptoms and/or at least six hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms rated 'very often' by the teachers, the parents completed the Italian ADHD Rating Scale for Parents (SDAG). Children with documented ADHD symptoms at both school and home received a complete psychiatric interview with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). Results. Of the 1887 assessed children, 4.45% (95% CI 3.58-5.51) met the ADHD cut-off on teacher ratings, 1.43% (0.96-2.12) had ADHD symptoms endorsed by both teacher and parent, and 1.32% (0.87-1.97) were further confirmed by the psychiatric evaluation. The male:female ratio was 7:1. The inattentive type accounted for about half of the ADHD cases. Conclusions. When applying stringent criteria for both severity and pervasiveness of symptoms, it is estimated that about 1.3% of the Italian elementary and middle-school children suffer from severe ADHD.
    Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences 09/2014; DOI:10.1017/S2045796014000523 · 3.91 Impact Factor
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