Frequent in-frame somatic deletions activate gp130 in inflammatory hepatocellular tumours.
ABSTRACT Inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas are benign liver tumours defined by the presence of inflammatory infiltrates and by the increased expression of inflammatory proteins in tumour hepatocytes. Here we show a marked activation of the interleukin (IL)-6 signalling pathway in this tumour type; sequencing candidate genes pinpointed this response to somatic gain-of-function mutations in the IL6ST gene, which encodes the signalling co-receptor gp130. Indeed, 60% of inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas harbour small in-frame deletions that target the binding site of gp130 for IL-6, and expression of four different gp130 mutants in hepatocellular cells activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the absence of ligand. Furthermore, analysis of hepatocellular carcinomas revealed that rare gp130 alterations are always accompanied by beta-catenin-activating mutations, suggesting a cooperative effect of these signalling pathways in the malignant conversion of hepatocytes. The recurrent gain-of-function gp130 mutations in these human hepatocellular adenomas fully explains activation of the acute inflammatory phase observed in tumourous hepatocytes, and suggests that similar alterations may occur in other inflammatory epithelial tumours with STAT3 activation.
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ABSTRACT: Owing to its abundance in inflammatory settings, interleukin IL-6 is frequently viewed as a proinflammatory cytokine, with functions that parallel those of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1β in the context of inflammation. However, accumulating evidence points to a broader role for IL-6 in a variety of (patho)physiological conditions, including functions related to the resolution of inflammation. We review recent findings on the complex biological functions governed by IL-6 signaling, focusing on its role in inflammation-associated cancer and metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We propose that the anti-inflammatory functions of IL-6 may extend to multiple settings and cell types, and suggest that these dimensions should be incorporated in therapeutic approaches to these diseases. Finally, we outline important areas of inquiry towards understanding this pleiotropic cytokine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Trends in Immunology 01/2015; 36(2). DOI:10.1016/j.it.2014.12.008 · 12.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inflammation promotes regeneration of injured tissues through poorly understood mechanisms, some of which involve interleukin (IL)-6 family members, the expression of which is elevated in many diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. Here we show in mice and human cells that gp130, a co-receptor for IL-6 cytokines, triggers activation of YAP and Notch, transcriptional regulators that control tissue growth and regeneration, independently of the gp130 effector STAT3. Through YAP and Notch, intestinal gp130 signalling stimulates epithelial cell proliferation, causes aberrant differentiation and confers resistance to mucosal erosion. gp130 associates with the related tyrosine kinases Src and Yes, which are activated on receptor engagement to phosphorylate YAP and induce its stabilization and nuclear translocation. This signalling module is strongly activated upon mucosal injury to promote healing and maintain barrier function.Nature 03/2015; 519(7541):57-62. DOI:10.1038/nature14228 · 42.35 Impact Factor
Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2011; 16(1):2794. DOI:10.2741/3886 · 4.25 Impact Factor