Article

Effects of exenatide and liraglutide on heart rate, blood pressure and body weight: systematic review and meta-analysis

Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
BMJ Open (Impact Factor: 2.06). 01/2013; BMJ Open 2013;3:e001986.. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001986

ABSTRACT Objectives: To synthesise current evidence for the effects of exenatide and liraglutide on heart rate, blood pressure and body weight.

Design: Meta-analysis of available data from randomised controlled trials comparing Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues with placebo, active anti-diabetic drug therapy or lifestyle intervention.

Participants: Patients with type 2 diabetes.

Outcome measures: Weighted mean differences between trial arms for changes in heart rate, blood pressure and body weight, after a minimum of 12-week follow-up.

Results: 32 trials were included. Overall, GLP-1 agonists increased the heart rate by 1.86 beats/min (bpm) (95% CI 0.85 to 2.87) versus placebo and 1.90 bpm (1.30 to 2.50) versus active control. This effect was more evident for liraglutide and exenatide long-acting release than for exenatide twice daily. GLP-1 agonists decreased systolic blood pressure by -1.79 mm Hg (-2.94 to -0.64) and -2.39 mm Hg (-3.35 to -1.42) compared to placebo and active control, respectively. Reduction in diastolic blood pressure failed to reach statistical significance (-0.54 mm Hg (-1.15 to 0.07) vs placebo and -0.50 mm Hg (-1.24 to 0.24) vs active control). Body weight decreased by -3.31 kg (-4.05 to -2.57)
compared to active control, but by only -1.22 kg (-1.51 to -0.93) compared to placebo.

Conclusions: GLP-1 analogues are associated with a small increase in heart rate and modest reductions in body weight and blood pressure. Mechanisms underlying the rise in heart rate require further investigation.

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    • "The average weight loss amounted to 1.6 kg in the exenatide-treated groups. Additionally, significant reductions in systolic blood pressure compared to placebo (difference of 2.8 mmHg) have been reported after 6 months of treatment with exenatide [36] while no significant increases in heart rate have been reported [37]. The main side effects of exenatide are mild to moderate nausea, diarrhoea and vomiting. "
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