In vitro establishment of seeds of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) - Euphorbiaceae.

Caderno de Pesquisa série Biologia 01/2010; 22(3):5-12.

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to establish in vitro seedlings from seeds of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). The disinfection experiment consisted in factorial arrangement (2x2x3), being seed with tegument and without tegument, liquid and semi solid (6 g L-1 agar) media and three concentrations of NaOCl (1%, 2.5% and 5% ). Seeds were imersed in 70% ethanol for one minute and immersed in sodium hypochlorite (1%, 2.5% or 5%) for 10 minutes, after seeds were washed four times with distilled and autoclaved water. Basal germination medium was MS with 30 gL-1 sucrose and pH adjusted to 5.8. The establishment of in vitro plantlets of physic nut can be achieved by disinfection of seeds without tegument and immersion in sodium hypochlorite 2.5%, and germinated on the basic semi-solid medium, reaching 100% of seeds disinfection and 90% of germination.

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    ABSTRACT: The callus growth kinetics allows identifying the appropriate moment for callus pealing and monitoring the accumulation of primary and secondary metabolites. The physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a plant species used for biofuel production due to its high oil content; however, this plant presents a great amount of bioactive compounds which can be useful for industry. The aim of this research was to establish a calli growth curve and to evaluate the fatty acid profile of crude oil extracted from callus. The callus growth kinetics presented a sigmoid standard curve with six distinct phases: lag, exponential, linear, deceleration, stationary, and decline. Total soluble sugars were higher at the inoculation day. Reducing sugars were higher at the inoculation day and at the 80th day. The highest percentage of ethereal extract (oil content) was obtained at the 120th day of culture, reaching 18 % of crude oil from the callus. The calli produced medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids (from 10 to 18 carbon atoms). The palmitic acid was the fatty acid with the highest proportion in oil (55.4 %). The lipid profile obtained in callus oil was different from the seed oil profile.
    Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 04/2015; 175. DOI:10.1007/s12010-015-1618-y · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Seed germination involves the use of different enzymes for metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different commercial enzymes on germination of lettuce seeds. Lettuce seeds were immersed in a solution of 300 mL distilled water and 5.0 mL enzyme solution during one hour. The treatments consisted of the commercial enzyme solutions: (1) Alcalase® and Celluclean® (purpose catalyze hydrolysis of peptide bonds and bonds of beta 1,3 and 1,4 glucan present in the cellulose, respectively), (2) Pectinex® (purpose dilutes pectin, releasing sugars), (3) Alcalase® (purpose to catalyze peptide bonds), (4) Pectinex® and Alcalase® (purpose to catalyze peptide bonds and to release sugars), (5) Alcalase® and Ban® (purpose to catalyze peptide bonds and hydrolysis of bonds alpha 1,4 - glucosidic forming dextrin preferably as product), (6) Spirizyme® (glucoamylase enzyme: glucan 1,4 alphaglucosidase) and (7) control (distilled water free of enzymes). After treatment with the enzyme solutions seeds were sown in Petri dishes containing filter paper or soil as a substrate, both saturated with distilled water. The seeds of all treatments germinated in four days after seeding. The percentage of seed germination on filter paper showed no significant differences between the treatments, but the germination percentage showed statistical differences when germinated in the soil. The highest percentages of germination in the soil were in the control treatment (96.6%) and in the treatment with Pectinex® and Alcalase® (81.6%). Industrial enzymes application in lettuce seeds does not increase the speed and percentage of seed germination.
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    ABSTRACT: The growth analysis has been used by researchers to explain differences in the growth, which can be caused for genetic factors or by environmental modifications and constitutes efficient tool for the identification of favorable environments, besides identifying characteristics in the initial growth, to indicate possibility in the increase of growth of the adult plant, favoring the genetic breeding for material more productive. The aim of this research was to study the initial growth of the physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) in three shading levels (0%, 50% and 90%). The evaluated variables were height of plants, stem base diameter, leaf area, dry mass of the leaves, total dry mass and number of leaves at the 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days after the emergency of the plants. The largest height of the plants was observed in 50% of shading and the smallest in 0% of shading. The largest stem base diameter was obtained in plants with 0% of shading and the smallest in 90%. Plants cultivated on 50% of shading presented larger number of leaves, leaf area, dry mass of the leaves and total dry mass. The best development of seedlings of physic nut occurs under 50% of shading in the Gurupi, TO.