Use of the GMFCS in infants with CP: the need for reclassification at age 2 years or older.
ABSTRACT The stability of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) over time is described in 77 infants (41 boys, 36 girls) with cerebral palsy (CP; mean age 19.4mo [SD 1.6 mo]; 27 unilateral spastic, 42 bilateral spastic, eight dyskinetic type) and in the same children at follow-up at age 2 to 4 years. The overall level of agreement over time (linear weighted kappa) was 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61-0.79). The overall percentage of children whose GMFCS level changed one or two levels was 42%, of which the majority were reclassified to a less functional level (McNemar's Chi(2) test p=0.11). The chance that children initially classified in the combination of GMFCS Levels I, II, and III would subsequently be classified in the same level in early childhood was 96% (positive predictive value [PPV] 0.96, 95% CI 0.85-0.99), whereas the PPV for the combination of Levels I and II was 0.88, 95% CI 0.70-0.96. These findings indicate that GMFCS classification in infants is less precise than classification over time in older children. In conclusion, children can be classified by the GMFCS early on, but there is a need for reclassification at age 2 or older as more clinical information becomes available.
- SourceAvailable from: Peter L Rosenbaum[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the stability of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) by examining whether children with cerebral palsy (CP) remain in the same level over time. Participants were 610 children with CP (342 males, 268 females; mean age 6y 9mo [SD 2y 10mo]), range 16mo-13y). Children were assessed 2 to 7 times (mean 4.3) at 6-month (children <6y old) or 12-month(children >or=6y old) intervals. Seventy-three per cent of children remained in the same level for all ratings. The weighted kappa coefficient between the first and last ratings was 0.84 for children less than 6 years old and 0.89 for children at least 6 years old, indicating excellent chance-corrected agreement. Children initially classified in Levels I and V were least likely to be reclassified. There was a tendency for children younger than 6 years who were reclassified to be done so to a lower level of ability. The results provide evidence of stability of the GMFCS.Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 07/2006; 48(6):424-8. · 2.68 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To describe the impact of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) on gross motor function, data on 59 children (37 males, 22 females) with a gestational age (GA) of 34 weeks or less with cerebral palsy (CP) due to PVL grade I (n=20), II (n=13), III (n=25), and IV (n=1) were studied; (mean GA 29 wk 4d [SD 4 wk 6d]; mean birthweight 1318 g [SD 342]). Two independent raters used the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) at four time points: T1, mean corrected age (CA) 9 months 15 days (SD 2 mo 6d); T2, mean CA 16 months (SD 1 mo 27 d); T3, mean CA 24 months 27 days (SD 2 mo 3d); and T4, median age 7 years 6 months (range 2 y 2 mo-16 y 8 mo). Interrater reliability and stability across time with respect to the total cohort were kappa>or=0.86 and rho>or=0.74 respectively. The association between PVL and gross motor outcome at T4 was strong (positive and negative predictive values 0.92 and 0.85 respectively). The proportion of children who remained in the same GMFCS level increased from 27% (T1-T4) to 53% (T2-T4) and 72% (T3-T4). PVL grade I to II, as diagnosed in the neonatal period, has a better functional mobility prognosis than PVL grade III-IV. These findings have implications for habilitation counselling and intervention strategies.Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 10/2008; 50(9):684-9. · 2.68 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine the stability of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels between approximately 12 years of age and adulthood (i.e. > 16y) using a matched chart review. Adult health records from the Ottawa Rehabilitation Centre were matched with childhood health records from the Ottawa Children's Treatment Centre (OCTC). Health records were available for 103 adults (52 males, 51 females) with cerebral palsy (CP; age range 17-38y; mean age 22y [SD 4y]) who had also been seen at the OCTC at a mean age of 12 years (SD 1y). GMFCS levels as adults were: Level I, n= 10; Level II, n= 24; Level III, n= 21; Level IV, n= 30; and Level V, n= 18. Adult participants were classified using the GMFCS at the time they were last seen by a rehabilitation specialist, sometime between June 2002 and June 2005. Corresponding paediatric charts were reviewed and classified by two independent raters blinded to the adult GMFCS levels. GMFCS levels around age 12 were: Level I, n= 20; Level II, n= 13; Level III, n= 22; Level IV, n= 35; and Level V, n= 13. Interrater reliability for childhood health records was determined with a quadratic weighted kappa and was 0.978. Stability of GMFCS levels was also assessed using the quadratic weighted kappa and was 0.895. The positive predictive value of the GMFCS at 12 years of age to predict walking without mobility aids by adulthood is 0.88. If the child is a wheelchair user at around age 12 years, the positive predictive value is 0.96 that the individual will still be a wheelchair user as an adult. This study supports previous findings that interrater reliability when using the GMFCS is very high. It also shows that the GMFCS level observed around the age of 12 years is highly predictive of adult motor function. This provides important information for individuals with CP, their families, and care providers as they plan for future care needs and rehabilitation intervention.Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 05/2007; 49(4):265-9. · 2.68 Impact Factor