Recent advances in the biology of WASP and WIP.
ABSTRACT WASP, the product of the gene mutated in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, is expressed only in hematopoietic cells and is the archetype of a family of proteins that include N-WASP and Scar/WAVE. WASP plays a critical role in T cell activation and actin reorganization. WASP has multiple protein-interacting domains. Through its N-terminal EVH1 domain WASP binds to its partner WASP interacting protein (WIP) and through its C-terminal end it interacts with and activates the Arp2/3 complex. In lymphocytes, most of WASP is sequestered with WIP and binding to WIP is essential for the stability of WASP. The central proline-rich region of WASP serves as docking site to several adaptor proteins. Through these multiple interactions WASP integrates many cellular signals to actin cytoskeleton remodeling. In this review, we have summarized recent developments in the biology of WASP and the role of WIP in regulating WASP function. We also discuss WASP-independent functions of WIP.
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ABSTRACT: Over the last decades, research dedicated to the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying primary immunodeficiencies (PID) has helped to understand the etiology of many of these diseases and to develop novel therapeutic approaches. Beyond these aspects, PID are also studied because they offer invaluable natural genetic tools to dissect the human immune system. In this review, we highlight the research that has focused over the last 20 years on T lymphocytes from Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) patients. WAS T lymphocytes are defective for the WAS protein (WASP), a regulator of actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Therefore, study of WAS T lymphocytes has helped to grasp that many steps of T lymphocyte activation and function depend on the crosstalk between membrane receptors and the actin cytoskeleton. These steps include motility, immunological synapse assembly, and signaling, as well as the implementation of helper, regulatory, or cytotoxic effector functions. The recent concept that WASP also works as a regulator of transcription within the nucleus is an illustration of the complexity of signal integration in T lymphocytes. Finally, this review will discuss how further study of WAS may contribute to solve novel challenges of T lymphocyte biology.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2015; 6:47. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00047